Source : Probably PTS
Apadana Part - 1.1a : Previous Buddhas - Dipankara Buddha Blesses SumedhaEdit
Foreword to the Treatise Edit
Commentary on the Apadāna
(The First Portion)
Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa
With my head I bow and pay homage to the most excellent Buddha, the peerless personage, who has crossed over the ocean of knowledge as well as the sea of Saŋsāra, rounds of repeated rebirths. In the same way, I pay my homage to the absolutely peaceful, profound truth, Dhamma, which is difficult to see, minute, creative of a variety of existences, pure, and honoured by the Omniscient Buddha. Similarly also, I pay my homage to the most Excellent Saŋgha, the disciples of the Buddha, who are free from evil and attachment, who constitute the most worthy recipients of dedicatory offerings, whose controlling faculties of sense are tranquil and who are free from cankers (āsava).
With the homage distinguishedly done to this and that 'gem' by me, with outstanding respect distinctively in the three Gems, I was repeatedly and even respectfully requested by senior members of the Buddhist clergy, who are steadfastly steady, wisely learned in the āgamas, the teachings of Buddha, and famous with their followers saying thus in particular:- "Venerable sir! commentary on Apadāna should be compiled".
I would therefore elucidate the proper exposition according as the text stands in the three piţakas, leaving nothing with regard to the biographies and attainments
of the Buddha's Disciples explaining in a method of particular category.
By whom, where and when was this, the most excellent Dhamma preached? For what purpose also was it spoken? Having said (in answer to) those questions, consequent conclusion follows. For the purpose of being conversant with preliminaries and for easy acquirement and bearing in memory, I would speak of such and such solutions separating the earlier from the later, as well as whatever is required by the good people, as has not been fulfilled, according to what was laid down in the old Sinhalese language and old commentaries. Therefore, seeking the aid of the ancient commentary's method and avoiding repulsive renderings, I would bring to light distinctly clear meanings. In this way, I am compiling an expository commentary — the most excellent expositor of outstanding character.
Because of the promise made (by me) in my foreword namely:- "I would compile a commentary (comprising) by when, where and when that this most excellent Dhamma, truth, was spoken", this expositor of Apadāna would certainly point out the remote past preface, (dūronidāna), the unremote past preface (avidūre nidāna) and the proximate preface (santike nidāna),, altogether those three prefaces. Those who hear such a (comprehensive) commentary are sure to understand with complete comprehension from the time they repeat themselves what they have heard. Since such a comprehension can be called good understanding I, therefore, compile this my commentary only after relating the three prefaces (Nidāna).
There, from the beginning, now, each episode of the three prefaces should be known (the first episode is) from the time, the Great Being received the prophecy at the feet of the Buddha Dīpańkara, up to the time He was reborn in the heavenly city of Tusita after His Demise as King Vessantara. The path of discourse in between the two occasions is known as the remote preface -(dūrenidāna.) (The second episode is) from the time however, of having passed away from the Tusita heavenly mansion, till He attained omniscience at the foot of the Bodhi tree. The path of discourse in between the two occasions is known as the unremote preface -(avidūre nidāna.) As regards the proximate preface (santike nidāna) however, information about the episode is gained at such and such places as had become the residences of the Buddha Himself.
1. In that matter, this, namely, is the remote preface (dūrenidāna). We are told that a hundred thousand world aeons more than four complete sets of innumerable world aeons (kappa) age, from new, there was a city, known by the name of Amaravatī. In that city, there lived a brahmin, named Sumedha. He was born of a good family, both from the mother's side and father's side. Up to the seventh generation, (kulaparivaţţa), his forefathers and himself had clean and clear conscience. With regard to his birth and breeding, there had been no rejection, (akkhitta) and reproach, (anupakutthe) . He was very handsome, good-looking, pleasing, and endowed with such complexion as may be compared to a most beautiful lotus flower. He studied the science of the brahmins only, without doing any other work. While yet young, he lost both his parents. On the death of his parents, his minister, in charge of the entire family estate and wealth, brought to him the book of inventory, wherein was recorded his ancestral property. Thereafter, the registrar opened the chamber, wherein were treasured gold and silver, gems and pearls, etc., and explained to him thus: "This much belonged to your mother; this much to your father, and this much to your grandfather, and grandmother", having thus informed his heritage, bequeathed by his parents and grandparents, until the wealth of the seven preceding generations had been included, the record-keeper, minister, requested the young man to make proper use of his inherited treasure of wealth. The wise Sumedha reflected: "Having accumulated this wealth, my father and grandfather etc., in passing away to the next existence, did not go taking along with them, a single coin, (kahāpana) of money even. In my case, it is proper for me to make my going, after taking them away. He therefore, informed the king, had the drum beaten round all over the city, gave charity to the great mass of people, renounced the world and became a hermit. In order to make clear this matter, however, in this place, the discourse on Sumedha (Sumedha Kathā) should be preached. This incident did certainly come continuously, however, in the Buddhaŋsa. Nevertheless, because it came, however, in the form of poetry continuously it is not clearly comprehensible. Therefore, I shall speak about it, at regular intervals, the verses together with their relevant renderings of explanatory expositions.
Discourse on Sumedha, The Future Gotama Buddha Edit
1.1 One hundred thousand aeons ***(P.5) more than four innumerable aeons, (Kappa), ago, there was a city, which received the name of Amaravatī or Amara , with a non-stop ringing of ten kinds of sounds. Regarding this, it is stated in the Buddhavaŋsa as follows:-
One hundred thousand aeons and four innumerable aeons, (kappa), ago, there existed a city called Amara, which had a delightful scenery, where ten kinds of sounds were never silent and where were abundant food and drink.
1.2 There, the Pāļi expression: dasahi saddehi avivittaŋ connotes never silent but ever filled with ten kinds of sounds with the sound of elephants, with the sound of horses, with the sound of chariots, with the sound of big drums, with the sound of kettle drums (mudińga), with the sound of lutes, with the sound of songs, with the sound of conch shells, with the striking of cymbals, with the sounds of such invitations and receptions as:- "Do take your seat, do have your meal; do have a drink; as the tenth sound. With these ten kinds of sounds, the city was never in a state of silent seclusion.
In the Buddhavaŋsa, however, those sounds were taken up individually and mention was made as follows:
"Sound of elephants, sound of horses, that of big drums, conch shells and chariots. With food and drink, announcements were made: Do eat and drink as well.
Having said so the following statement was also made:-
“It was a city, complete in all aspects, towards which people came for all kinds of work. Endowed with seven types of gems, the city was crowded with various grades of people. Prosperous (samiddhaŋ) like a celestial city, it was the residence of makers of merit. In that city of Amaravatī, a brahmin named Sumedha, had an accumulated wealth of crores and crores in numerous quantity and owned abundant money and paddy. A reciter and memoriser of the mantras he was, since he had attained proficiency in the three Vedas. In palmistry and traditional lore, as well as in his own doctrine he had arrived at perfection.”
1.3 Then, one day, that wise man, Sumedha, being all alone by himself, at the upper storey of his excellent mansion, seated himself cross-legged and reflected in this way: "O wise man! Such a phenomenon, as taking conception in the next existence, is indeed, a misery (Dukkha). So also, there is the breaking up of the body, wheresoever any and everybody is reborn. I, also, am subject to birth, liable to old age, prone to disease and destined to death. Such being the case, it behaves me to seek and find the great deathless Nibbāna, which is happy and cool, where birth, old age, ailment and death are absent. Inevitably, having escaped from existence, I should become bound for Nibbāna, the immortal state, by a single journey of the right path. It has been, therefore, stated thus:-
"Gone into seclusion and having been seated, I Then contemplated thus: ‘As now existence is, indeed, miserable; equally so, is the breaking up of the body. Since I am subject to birth, old age and ailment, I shall be in quest of perfect peace (nibbuti), which knows no old age and is secure (from all dangers). Would it not be well, should I discard this putrid physical body, filled with all sorts of sores, and go desirelessly and without any hankering after it? There does exist that right path, which, however, is not possible, without any cause. That right path, I shall seek, for my entire escape from existence.’
1.4 Beyond that also, he reflected thus:-
“Just as, indeed, in this world, there is such a phenomenon as happiness, in contrast with misery, so also if there is becoming, there should also be its contrast - the non-becoming. Again, just as when there could be heat, there is also its cessation - cold, in the same way, with the cessation of fires of lust (rāga), etc., there ought to be immortal peace (Nibbāna). Just as, indeed, in contrast with inferior and evil doctrine (Dhamma) there is but the good and sinless truth (Dhamma), exactly in the same way, should there be bad birth, there should also be birth-free state (nibbāna), where birth is unknown, due to discarding all births.”
Therefore it was stated:-
“Just as happiness certainly exists when sufferings abound, in the same way, absence of becoming ought to be expected, when becoming exists. Just as the cool immortality is present, when heat exists, so also, cessation of fires (nibbāna) is to be expected, when fires of three categories, (lobha, dosa and moha) are ablaze. Just as the good is there, when the bad exists, so also the birth-free state is to be expected, when birth exists.”
1.5 Further on, he continued thinking:- "Just as it is proper for a man, sunk in a heap of dung, to seek and find the proper path to go to a large lake, covered with lotus flowers of five colours, which he saw but from a great distance; should no seeking be done, the fault is not that of the lake, but of the man. In the selfsame way, when the great lake of the immortal state (nibbāna), does exist for washing away the depravity, (kilesa), when no quest is made, the fault is not that of the great immortal lake of nibbāna, but of the man. Just as a man were surrounded by robbers and should there also be a path by which he could flee from them, if, in spits thereof, he did not run away, the path is not to blame, but the man is. Exactly in the same way, when there exists a cool path leading to immortality (nibbāna), for a man surrounded and seized by sins of depravity (kilesa), he does not seek the path, it is not the path that is blame-worthy, but the man is. When a physician, who can give medical treatment to cure ailments, is available, a man afflicted with disease were not to get in touch with that doctor and would not have his illness medically treated, the physician is not at fault, but the patient is. Exactly in the same way, if a living teacher clever in directing the path leading to the cessation of (corrupting) depravity, (kilesa), is not sought by any one, who is oppressed by the disease of depravity (kilesa), it is the fault of the non-seeker but not that of the teacher, the destroyer of depravity, (kilesa). Therefore, it has been stated as follows:
“Just as it is not the fault of a lake for not being found by a man, who had gone down into dirty dung, although he saw it (from afar), full (of water), so also it is not the fault of the lake of immortality, when no quest is made of it (by any man), although such a lake of freedom from death that washes away the (impurities of) depravity (kilesa), exists. Just as the straight path of escape is not to blame, because the man, severely surrounded by his enemies did not flee, though the way to go was there, exactly in the same way, the cool straight path is not to blame, because nobody makes a quest of it, when, being surrounded severely by sins of depravity (kilesa), although the cool path (of escape) is there. Just as a medical man is not blameworthy, because (the patient) did not have his ailment medically treated, although that ailing man knows the existence of a physician, exactly in the same way, the leader-teacher is not blameworthy, if no discovery of him, the teacher, is made by a man, suffering from and entirely oppressed by diseases of depravity (kilesa).”
1.6 Further on, he be thought himself:- "Just as a man, congenitally fond of finery, were to cast off a corpse, clinging to his neck and go about happily, similarly, should I cast off this putrid physical body of mine, regardlessly and enter the immortal city of (nibbāna). Just as also on a dung hill, men and women, having done their ablutions by discharging excrement and urine, go away without taking the discharge along, either in their laps of after turning up the ends of their garments: hungry though they may be, they have no regard for their discharge but would discard them and go away: similarly it suits me also to put aside, regardlessly, this putrid physical body and enter the immortal city (nibbāna). Just as the sea-going sailors go about after discarding their worn-out vessel, regardlessly, I also, similarly, should regardlessly reject this physical body of mine, which is leaking from the nine sore-holes and enter the safe city (nibbāna). Like unto a man, who happened to have brought many a variety of gems, going on a journey along with robbers, takes a (separate) path that is safe and secure, abandoning all his several gems, when his own jewel-self is in danger of destruction, equally so, this impure body resembles a robber, who lives by pilferage and plunder of gems and jewels. Should to this, I become attached, the jewel good-deed and gem-like noble path for me will get destroyed. It, therefore, behoves me to give up this robber-resembling body and get into the great immortal city of nibbāna. It has been stated, therefore, thus:
“Just as a man would go safely, independently, according to his own desire after he has set himself free from his neck, where was fastened despicably a corpse, exactly in the same way, would I go desirelessly and regardlessly after discarding this putrid physical body, wherein is a accumulated different dead-bodies. Just as men and women go away after discharging their excrement in a lavatory, regardlessly and desirelessly, in the selfsame manner would I go after making my ablution, as and where exists a privy, discarding this my physical body, filled with different dead-bodies.
“Like unto ship-owners, who go away after abandoning on old beat which was leaking and crumbling, regardlessly and desirelessly, equally so, I would go off after abandoning this body, ever leaking from its nine holes, similar to what the owners do to their worn out-boat.
“Just as a man who brought treasure with him and happened to be travelling together with thieves, goes away forsaking everybody and everything, seeing the danger of his own body-treasure being cut to pieces, exactly so, would I go, forsaking this body, which is like unto a big thief, due to the danger of my good deed being cut to pieces.”
1.7 In this way, the wise man, Sumedha pondered with different variety of illustrations over this matter directly beneficial to renunciation, gave a great charity, distributing gifts to all needy wayfarers, etc., in the way already aforesaid abandoned both kinds of sensual pleasures, material (vatthu,( and sinful depravity (kilesa), went out of the city of Amara, all alone, built a hermitage in the neighbourhood of a hill, known by the name of Dhammika (Righteous), in the Himalayas. There, he has a leaf-hut and a cloister-walk built. Thereafter, he made his renunciation an accomplished act by becoming a hermit, after putting on a bark garment, which is endowed with twelve virtues and forsaking the clothes contaminated with nine defects, in order that he may bring into that hermitage for him, spiritual strength, known as higher knowledge, abhiññā, complete with eight circumstantial virtues, usually described in such a manner as : "when, in this way, the mind is self-composed and well-meditated" etc., that super-knowledge (abhiññā) which had abandoned the five hindrances (nīvaraņa). Having thus become a hermit, he abandoned his leaf-hut, since it was (considered to be) mixed up with eight defects and approached the foot of a tree, considered to comprise ten virtues. He then rejected all food made of rice and other grains and became an eater of fallen fruits, fresh from trees. Making strenuous effort by sticking to three postures only: sitting, standing and walking to and fro, he became a gainer of five sorts of super-knowledge, (abhiññā) and eight meditative attainments (samāpatti) within a period of seven days only. Thus, it was, he arrived at the stage of the strength of super-knowledge according as he aspired. Therefore, it has been stated:-
"Having thus thought over, I went towards the Himalayas
after providing protection to the helpless by giving
away as charity crores over crores and hundreds of my
money. For me, there came to be a leaf-hut well-built,
a hermitage, well-made, at the Dhammika hill, not far
from the Himalayas. Also made there, was a cloister-
walk free from five faults, complete with eight
virtues and congenial for bringing about the strength
of super-knowledge. There, I took off my (costly)
clothes contaminated with nine drawbacks and dressed
myself in bark garment, complete with twelve good
qualities. Even the leaf-hut, (I considered as) mixed
up with eight defects, (and so) rejected an
approached the foot of a tree, teaming with ten good
qualities. Totally, did I reject the cultivated and
planted crop and accepted the fresh fruits fallen from
trees, (such ripe) fruits as were full of numerous
virtues. There, under the tree, I made strenuous
effort, sticking to three postures: sitting, standing
and walking only and I gained the spiritual strength
of super-knowledge (abhiññā) within seven days only.
1. Traditionally in Pāļi phraseology there are two ways of referring to previous statements: (a) rukkhārūļha naya, (b) maggagama naya. Here, the former method, rukkhārūļha naya, is employed. Hence heţţhā, signifying the lower portion of the tree which had previously been climbed. Thus the English equivalent is "aforesaid" for the Pāļi expression heţţhāvutta, literally, "said below".
1.8 There, in the above poem, in this context, namely: "assamo sukato mayhaŋ, seems, however, to signify that: it has been stated as if the hermitage comprising of a leaf-hut and a cloister-walk was built by the wise Sumedha, with his own hands. But this is what is actually meant here: Sakka, seeing indeed that the Great Being having penetrated into the Himalayas and entered the valley of the Dhammika hill, addressed the young divinity Vissakamma thus: "My dear! This wise Sumedha has renounced the world and come out of his city you should create a dwelling place for him". That divine being, Vissakamma, responsively receiving the words of Sakka, created a delightful hermitage, comprising a well-guarded leaf-hut and a pleasant cloister-walk (or promenade). The glorious Buddha, however, referred to that hermitage as being completed then, because of the potent power of his good deeds and so said: Sāriputta! In that valley of the Dhammika hill:-
"For me was well-made a hermitage, free from five
faults, comprising a well-built leaf-hut and a
cloister-walk (or promenade).
There, (in that stanza of two lines), the expression sukato mayhaŋ is to be paraphrased as 'suţţhu kato mayā, 'well done by me; the expression paņņasālā sumāpitā is to be construed as: paņņacchadanasālāpi me sumāpitāhosi (a dwelling covered with a roof of leaves was also properly put up by me).
1.9 In the expression pañcadosavivajjitā: These are known as the five faults of a (poor) cloister-walk (or promenade): (1) hardness and uneven level (2) trees being inside (3) being covered with dung or jungle (4) being too narrow (5) being too spacious. The feel of one, who walks about on a promenade, indeed, of uneven hard pieces of land, become painful; swelling blisters arise. The mind does not get one-pointedness. Meditation exercise makes no progress. On the other hand, comfortable walking on soft and even surface is conducive towards good progress in meditation exercise. Therefore, hardness and uneven condition of the cloister should be understood as one defect. Should there be a tree either inside or in the mid-centre or at the extremity of the cloister, either the forehead or the head of the walking man, who might come there unawares, would be knocked against. Hence the condition, of having a tree in it, is the second defect of the promenade.
Whoever walks about on a promenade covered over with such jungle as grass, creepers etc., in the dark hours, might either kill, by treading upon, such living creatures as snakes etc., or suffer pain being bitten by them. Hence it is that the condition of being enveloped by bushes is the third defect. nails, toes and fingers of one, who walks about on a very narrow promenade, get broken by stumbling at the boundary, where the breadth is only a cubit or half a cubit. Thus extreme narrowness is the fourth fault of a promenade. The mind of one, who walks about on an over-spacious promenade, runs riot. The mind does not get one-pointedness. Thus, the state of being over-spacious is the fifth fault of a promenade. From the point of view of being broad, however, it should be one and a half cubits (at the centre) and about a cubit (each) on the two sides as smaller cloisters; the length should be sixty cubits, covering such an area spread over evenly with sand, the promenade ought to be like that of the Thera Mahā Mahinda, the brilliant light-giver to the island (of Lańka) on the pagoda hill (Cetiyagiri).
1.10 The expression:- aţţhaguņasamupetaŋ is to be understood thus:- 'aţţhahi samaņasukhehi upetaŋ, 'endowed with eight kinds of monk's happiness'. These are eight kinds of monk's happiness: the condition of having acquired money and paddy, the opportunity of seeking sinless lumps of food in his begging-bowl. the condition of enjoying his meal peacefully, the absence of depravity (kilesa) consisting which harasses kingdoms by royal relatives among themselves, pilfering and plundering their kingdom and seizing the wealth, coins, etc., in addition to beheading (one another) freedom from attachment to and desire for his monk's equipment (or means of achieving a monk's purpose); sense of fearlessness when pillaged and plundered by robbers; having nothing to do with the king and his chief ministers; the condition of not being smitten (appaţihata) in the four cardinal directions. This is what has been stated: (Sakka) had such a hermitage created as one, where hermits would be able to obtain these eight kinds of happiness by dwelling in it. In this way does that hermitage promote eight varieties of happiness.
1.11 The expression: abhiññā-balamāhariŋ should be comprehended thus: I brought in the strength of super-knowledge that had gained vigour by beginning to make effort over even clearly seeing (myself) from the angle of impermanence and misery (dukkha), to produce and get result in achieving super-knowledge and meditative attainments (Samāpatti) doing the eye-fixing (kasiņa, device) metal exercise, as I reside in that hermitage. Just as I am able to bring in that (spiritual) strength, while dwelling in that (hermitage) exactly in the same way, (Sakka) had such a hermitage, as would be suitable for the benefit of gaining super-knowledge, (abhiññā) and strength of spiritual insight (vipassanā), created; thus the expression is to be explained.
1.12 The expression: sāţakaŋ pajahiŋ tattha navadosamupāgataŋ is to be construed thus:- Here, this is the discourse in its gradual order. It is said that at that time the divine being Vissatkamma created a delightful hermitage furnished with a privy, safe shelter, cloister etc., shaded over with flowering and fruit-bearing trees, flowing fresh water, standing on a site, where brutal beasts and fearsome jungle-birds had been removed, and where solitude would be facilitated. At each extremity of the decorated cloister, a wooden balustrade each, was built up; for sitting down in the middle of the cloister, a stone seat with an even level surface of ****(P.16) colour was created. inside the hermitage, were deposited such hermit's necessities as: plaited-hair-circle, bark garments, three sticks, (which constitute a tripod, a water-pot and so on; in the front hall (maņ̄dapa) are arranged a water-jar, a water-conch-shell and water-cup complete with its saucer; in the heating hall (aggisālā) are placed earthen ware pan for ashes, firewood, etc. In this way, whatever would be of beneficial use for recluses, all those were created. Thereafter, having engraved an inscription: "Whosoever are desirous of becoming recluses they may do so, taking these hermit-necessities (tāpasaparikkhāra)"; (later), the divine-being Vissakamma went back to his heavenly world only. At that juncture, the wise Sumedha was looking out for a suitable site, worthy of residence for himself, since he had followed up the course the hills and glens at the base of the Himalayas. At a river-bend the wise man saw the pleasant hermitage, the gift of Sakka, created by Vissakamma, went to an extremity of cloister, and not seeing any foot-print (on the floor), bethought to himself: "It must be that regular recluses, having gone to nearest village, in search of food to be begged for, come back tired, entered the leaf-hut and become seated." He, therefore, awaited a little and later, saying to himself: "this seems to be taking too long, 'I shall fine out what really is', he opened the door of the leaf-roofed hermitage, entered inside, looked about here and there, read the writing on the large wall and said: "These are useful and appropriate articles for me; taking these, I shall become a real recluse." Having said so, he forsook his pair of garments both lower and upper. Therefore, has it been stated: Sāţakaŋ pajahiŋ tatthā,
'there I forsook my (pair of) garments.' Oh Sāriputta! Having thus entered that leaf-roofed hermitage, I forsook my clothing.
1.13 The expression: navadosamupāgataŋ, is to be elucidate thus: 'In discarding (my) clothing, I did so, because I saw nine faults'. Indeed, for those who renounced the world and became hermits, there become apparent, nine faults in a good garment: (1) One of the faults is its high value; (2) the second fault lies in its coming into existence through depending on others; (3) the third fault is in getting dirty quickly by the use of it; when dirty, it is, indeed, to be washed and dyed also; (4) the fourth fault lies in getting old and worn out by the use of it; the torn (garment) has either to be tailored or to be given a gusset; (5) the fifth fault lies in the difficulty of successfully seeking a new set (of clothes); (6) the sixth fault is its impropriety for a recluse, renouncing the world; (7) the seventh fault is it's being the common property of the enemies; so as, indeed, enemies do not seize it, accordingly, it should be looked after; (8) the eighth fault lies in its becoming the seat of ornamentation of the one, who uses it. (9) the ninth fault lies in the great greed for loading up his body, in carrying it and going about here and there
1.14 The expression: vākacīraŋ nivāsesiŋ is to be comprehended thus: At that time, I, O Sāriputta! having seen these nine faults, forsook (my_) garments and put on the bark garment. Chopping the Muñja reed to pieces, joining and binding them, a reed raiment for lower and upper robes, could be accomplished and I accepted it.
1.15 The expression: Dvādasaguņamunāgataŋ is to be interpreted as being endowed with twelve kinds of benefit. There are indeed, twelve advantages in the reed raiment; (1) the first being new in its cheap value, excellence and propriety, (2) the second, its possibility of being made by one's own hand; (3) the third, it becomes only slowly dirty by use; and there is absence of delaying hindrance (papañca) when it is washed (also) (4) the fourth is the non-existence of darning and stitching even when it is worn out by usage; (5) the fifth is easy procurement, when a new outfit is sought for; (6) the sixth is its congeniality to the renouncing recluse; (7) the seventh is nonexistence of being profitable to enemies (8) the eighth is the absence of any cause (ţhāna), for the wearer to ornament (himself); (9) the ninth consists in light weight in case of carrying it (10) the tenth consists in diminished desire (appicchā) in the robe-requisite; (11) the eleventh consists in being sinless and righteous for the procurement of reed (the raw material for recluses raiment); (12) the twelfth is regardlessness even when the reed-raiment is ruined.
1.16 The expression: aţţhadosa samākiņņaŋ pajahiŋ paņņasālakaŋ is to be understood thus: How did I forsake? It is said he, (the wise Sumedha), took off the suit (yuga) of excellent garments, caught hold of the red reed raiment, resembling a garland of Anoja flowers, which conformed to the requirement of a robe, put on the lower dress, above which, he put on, all over his upper limbs, another reed raiment of gold colour, while on one of his shoulders he carried, along with its hoofs, an antelope's skin, resembling the spread-out heap of Punnāga flowers, suitably released the braided-hair circle, thrust in a strong needle (of hardwood) for the purpose of making it unshakable along with his hair-crest, ******(P.18) with a string, resembling a loose thread from a net, he took down the coral coloured drinking water-pot, brought a carrying pole, which contained curves at three points, at one end of the carrying-pole, he hung the drinking-water pot; at another, hook, basket, and three-sticks-triped etc.; raised the loaded pole on to his shoulder; with his right hand he caught hold of his ascetic staff (kattaradaņ̄dak), went out of the leaf-roofed hermitage, walked (M*****?Pg.19) to and fro on the great cloister (mahācańkama) of sixty cubits, looked over his own appearance and said to himself 'my desired object has reached its highest height; my renunciation, indeed, is resplendent; this renunciation of mine is the one, eulogised (vaņņita) and praised (thomita) by omniscient Buddhas, by silent buddhas and by all wise personages; by me, my household bondage had been abandoned; I have come out renouncing the world; obtained by me, now, has been the noblest life of a recluse. I shall, now, perform the duties of a recluse so that I get the happiness of the right path (Magga) and its fruition (phala)." Energy emerged in Him; he put down his load-hanging pole, took his seat, himself similar to a seated gold-image, on the bean-coloured stone-slab, at the centre of the cloister, spent the portion of the day; and in the evening, entered the leaf-roofed hermitage; he lay himself down on a mat, made of twigs (kaţţhattharika) on the side of a bed-stead, made of split bamboo (bidala), caused his body to take season (i.e. refreshed his body by means of cool sleep-washing, etc., sarīram utum gāhāpetvā) woke up very early in the morning, and pondered over his own coming (there) thus: "Seeing defects in household life, I abandoned my immeasurable wealth and endless prosperity, entered the forest and became a recluse as a seeker of renunciation (nekkhammagavesaka). From now onwards, it does not behove me to go about forgetfully. Insects of evil thoughts wear away a wandering man, who has abandoned seclusion. At the present moment, it is proper for me, to devote myself to solitude. I, indeed, have done the renunciation, seeing the household life, from the angle of impediment. This leaf-roofed hermitage is pleasing to my mind; the surrounding grounds bear the colour of ripe bael-fruit; its white walls are silver-coloured; the roof of leaves bears the colour of a pigeon's feet; its bedstead of split-bamboo has the colour of a varied - coloured carpet, it is a residential abode for comfortable dwelling. It seems to me that apart from this leaf-roofed hermitage, there appears not another extra happy habitation (gehasampadā)." Thus did he, the wise Sumedha, saw the eight faults as he investigated the defects of his leaf-roofed hermitage.
1.17 Eight, indeed, are the disadvantages in making use of the leaf-roofed hermitage: (1) the first disadvantage lies in; seeking and preparing, after putting together requisite material with great effort, (2) the second consists in constant watchfulness for the purpose of repeatedly replacing rightly as and when grass, leaves and clay fall of and drop down; (3) the third lies in getting up saying: there is no one-pointed tranquillity of mind to one, who is roused up at an untimely hour, when, for instance, an aged ascetic arrives at the hermitage; (4) the fourth lies in becoming instrumental in the body becoming delicate, owing to protection from cold, heat, etc; (5) the fifth consists in covering up criticism, since it is possible for one, who had entered a dwelling, to do any evil deed whatever; (6) the sixth lies in the action of acquisition saying: 'it is mine'; (7) the seventh lies in the fact that the existence of this, namely, the leaf-roofed hermitage, looks like one's own second residence; (8) the eighth consists in being common with many since the resident hermit will have to be living jointly together with sallow lice (ūkāmańgula), house lizards, etc. Thus, seeing the eight disadvantages, the Great Being abandoned the leaf-roofed hermitage. Therefore, it is stated: "I abandoned the leaf-roofed hermitage, beset with eight bad points'.
1.18 The expression:- Upagamim rukkhamūlam guņe dasahupāgata, should be comprehended thus: Having rejected the roofed-residence (channam), I went towards the foot of a tree, endowed with ten excellent qualities. In that expression, the ten good qualities are these: (1) the first good quality is scanty effort, involved there indeed, it is just by going towards it; (2) the second lies in not having to be watchful; (3) indeed, whether cleaned up (sammattha) or kept unswept (asammattha) it is ever ready for use; the third is thus: there is no necessity to be up and doing; (4) the fourth is that it does not give cover to escape censure; indeed, in doing evil deed there, the sinner suffers shame; thus, there is no cover from censure; (5) the fifth is non-rigidity of the body, since the tree-root recluse does not stiffen his body similar to a dweller in open air; (6) the sixth lies in absence of acquisition; 9(7) the seventh is negation of attachment to any dwelling; (8) the eighth is non-existence of ejectment saying: "you all get out, I shall keep watch to maintain it" as if in a house common to many occupants; (9) the ninth lies in the residing-recluse becoming filled with zest; (10) the tenth lies in regardlessness; because everywhere a recluse goes, he finds it easy to get a tree-root-residence. Hence the text says: 'I go to the foot of a tree seeing those ten good qualities'.
1.19 Having, indeed, noted properly so many of these circumstances, the great being, entered the village for begging food on the next day. At the village, where he arrived well, people offered him food with great goodwill (ussāha). He finished eating his meal, came back to his recluse's retreat, sat down and thought thus:- "I did not renounce the world and become a recluse to obtain food; this fatty (siniddha) food, for instance, causes pride, conceit and sensual excitement of a male man to increase. There is also no end to misery, originating from food. Would it not be well for me would I forsake food produced from grain, sown and grown and become an eater of seasonal fruits! From that time onwards, the wise Sumedha did accordingly and striving and exerting, did bring about the eight spiritual attainments (samāpatti), as well as the five forms of super-knowledge, (abbiññā), within an interval of merely seven days. Therefore, it has been stated:-
"Totally did I abstain the rice-grain, sown and
grown; on seasonal fruits endowed with numerous
good qualities did I live. There, I exerted
strenuous effort, sitting, standing and walking;
within seven days, I gained the spiritual strength
Dipankara Buddha Predicts Buddhahood For Sumedha Edit
1.20 While the hermit Sumedha, having thus achieved the spiritual strength of super-knowledge in this way, was passing his time enjoying the bliss of his excellent achievement, the world-teacher, known by the name of Dīpańkara arose in the world. At the time of His conception, birth, enlightenment, and turning the wheel of Dhamma, the entire ten thousand world-elements shook, trembled and quaked. A mighty uproar occurred. There became apparent thirtytwo omens (pubbanimitta). The hermit Sumedha, who was spending his time, enjoying the bliss of his spiritual achievement (samāpatti) did not hear that sound nor did he see those omens also.
"When, thus, I had achieved my accomplishment and
powerful mastery over my senses in the discipline
of a recluse, the conqueror and leader of men, known
as Dīpańkara arose in the world. Since I was absorbed
in my delight in deep meditation (jhāna) I did not
notice the four omens, at the time of His appearance,
His birth, His enlightenment and His preaching the
1.21. At that time, the ten supernaturally powerful (dasabala) Dīpańkara Buddha, accompanied by four hundred thousand canker-free (khīņāsava) disciples, undertaking a gradual journey, in easy stages, arrived at the city of Ramma and took up His residence in the great monastery of Sudassana. The citizens of Ramma heard that Dīpańkara, the leader of monks, having attained the highest of supreme enlightenment of an omniscient Buddha, turning the excellent wheel of dhamma, and making a gradual journey in easy stages, had arrived at their Ramma city and was staying in the great Sudassana monastery. They, then, had ghee, fresh butter etc. as well as medicine for ailments, garments and cloth-covers carried along, held in their hands, perfumes, garlands of flowers etc., behaved in such a ;way that in whichever direction there was the Buddha, the Dhamma and Samgha, to that direction they proned, bent and sloped down, approached the Master, paid Him homage, offered Him respectfully perfumes, flower-garlands, etc., seated themselves on one suitable side, listened to the preaching of the Dhamma, invited the Buddha and His retinue to the next day meal, rose up from their seats and went away.
1.22. On the next day, they made ready ;a great charity, decorated the city, and in making the road for the coming of the Dasabala Buddha to be worthy of Him, they threw in earth-fillings wherever water had eroded the soil (udakabhinna), levelled the surface of the ground, and spread over it, silver-coloured sand. They scattered also parched corn and flowers as well. Flags and festoons, with pieces of cloth differently dyed in colours, were also hoisted and shown about. Leafy plantain trees as well as rows of earthen jars, brimful of water, were set up. On that occasion, the hermit Sumedha went up into the sky from his hermitage and as he passed over those people in the air, saw them laughing with joy, descended from the sky, stood on one side and asked the people what, indeed, the matter was, thus:- "Oh my men! For whom are you adorning the uneven road here?". Therefore, it has been stated:-
"Having invited the Tathāgata at the outskirt
region, people with joyful heart cleaned the
road for His coming. On that occasion, I left
my own retreat; shaking my reed raiment, I
then went up the clouds. Seeing people getting
emotional, laughing joyously and happily, I
descended from the sky and asked the people
there and then:- For whom was the road cleaned
and the same made straight, this big-body of men,
excitedly joyful and rearing with laughter (añjasam
1.23. People replied "Venerable Sumedha! Did you not know? The omniscient Dasabala, Buddha Dīpańkara, having attained supreme enlightenment, turning the wheel of dhamma, going on his round of journey, had arrived at our city, and has now been staying in the great Sudassana monastery. We had invited that Glorious One. We are now making the road to be worthy, by adorning, for the coming of this glorious Buddha. Then the hermit Sumedha thought to himself: "Difficult, indeed, it is to hear, in this world, even this much sound, namely, Buddha. How much more so, the appearance of Buddha? It would be well for me, to make the road worthy for the Dasabala Buddha, jointly with these people." He then addressed those people: "If you all are making this road worthy for the Buddha, do give me a certain section; together with you, I also, shall level up the road." They consented saying: 'very well' handed over a well-demarcated water-eroded area, saying: "you had better level up this depression," since they all know that the *****(Pg.24), Sumedha, had supernatural power. The hermit, Sumedha, overtaken by zest over his contemplative thought (ārammaņam) on Buddha and thought to himself: "I am capable of levelling up this piece of land by means of my magical power. Such a mending will not fully please me; it behoves me, now, to labour myself physically." Having thought over thus, he himself carried loose earth and threw it down in that eroded area.
1.24. His levelling work in that small section had not yet finished, when the dasabala Dīpańkara, surrounded by four hundred thousand disciples, of His canker-free arahants, who were spiritually very powerful and had gained super-knowledge, entered upon that evenly levelled and well-decorated road, like unto a lion, ready for its activity on the surface of a delightful stone slab, with the incomparable glory of Buddha, amidst homage paid, honour done and offerings made by beings divine and human, the former with celestial scents, garlands, etc., playing divine music and singing together divine songs, and the latter with human perfumes, flower-garlands, etc., and playing human music. The hermit Sumedha opened his eyes, looked at the personality of the dasabala Buddha, adorned with thirty two characteristics of a great personage, brightened by eighty smaller signs, circumspectly surrounded by fathom-wide glow, whose physique had attained the excellent physical proportions with the solid six-coloured rays of the Buddha issuing from it, swinging round in diffusion and radiation, forming themselves into couples and pairs, (yugala yugala bhūtā) similar to different categories of creepers of lightning (vijjulatā) on the blue sky-surface (gaganatala) of gem colour, and came upon this decision: "Proper it is, for me now, to sacrifice my life to the Dasabala Buddha. Let the Glorious One not tread upon mud. Let Him go, along with four hundred thousand canker-free disciples, treading on my back as if going on a bridge built of gem boards. Such an action will be conducive towards my benefit and happiness for a long period of time". Having made this decision, the hermit untied hi hair-braids, spread over black-coloured mud, his antelope skin, hi braided-hair-circle and his reed raiment, and they lay himself down like a gem-decorated bridge on the top of the mud. Therefore it has been stated:-
"When asked by me, they informed me thus:
'There has appeared in the world, the Buddha
known by the name of Dīpańkara, the conqueror,
who has no superior, and is the leader and
patron of men. For Him, the road is being
cleaned up and the same straightened up.
"The moment I heard the word Buddha, my zest
arose there and then. I enjoyed mental delight,
as I recited the words: Buddha! Buddha!
"There I stood and thought, pleased and excited
saying to myself: 'Here I shall sow seeds, let
not there be delay, even for a moment.
"If you all are cleaning for the Buddha, give
me also an opportunity to do so. I also shall
do the cleaning of the road and straightening
of the same.
"When they gave me a chance to clean the road.
Mentally marking as Buddha! Buddha! I cleaned
the road, then.
"Before I finished my portion of road-repair,
the great sage Dīpańkara, the conqueror, together
with four hundred thousand such stainless and
- (Pg.26) disciples as had gained six kinds of
super-knowledge, came upon the road.
"Joyful gods and men turned out to meet; many
drums sounded and congratulations conferred.
"Celestial beings saw the human-beings and so
did men the gods. Both of them all followed
behind the Buddha with their clasped hands in
"Celestial beings with heavenly musical in-
struments and human beings with human band
of music, both classes of them played their
music and followed the Tathāgata.
Celestial beings went up the heavenly height of
sky and scattered down celestial mandārava
together with Pārichattaka coral blossoms and
lotus flowers, in every direction. Heavenly-
beings went up the heavenly heights of the sky
and showered down heavenly sandalwood powder and
all-round excellent perfume in every direction.
Human folks went about on the surface of the
ground and threw up in every direction fragrant
white and yellow Campaka flowers, sweet-scented
Salala blossoms, Asoka flowers, red Fairy-tree
and Punnāga flowers, as well as Ketaka blossoms.
With my loose hair there, I spread out my skin
seat and reed raiment on the mud and then I lay
myself down with my face downward. Let the
Buddha, together with His disciples go treading
upon me; let them not tread upon that mud. It
will be for my welfare.
1.25. That hermit Sumedha, however, while lying prone on the top of the mud, opened his eyes again and observing properly the glory of the Buddha, the dasabala Dīpańkara, reflected thus:- "Should I so desire, I could now burn away all the forms of depravity (kilesa), become a new member of the organisation of Buddha's disciples and enter the city of Ramma. But to me, there is no such thing as the matter of attaining the immortal happiness (nibbāna), after burning away the depravity (kilesa), in the category of a non-entity. Would it not be well for me to attain the paramount peak of enlightment (paramābhisambodhi) like this Dasabala Dīpańkara, facilitate the multitudes to get on board the ship of truth (Dhamma), send them all across the ocean of repeated rebirths and afterwards only, I myself would enter complete nibbāna. This would of course be appropriate for me. Thereafter, with the combination of the eight conditions (dhamma) he lay himself down making the resolution (abhinīhāra) to become Buddha. Therefore, it has been stated:-
"It occurred to my mind thus, while I was lying
on the ground: 'Should I so desire now, I could
burn away my depravity (kilesa). What is the use
for me, here, to realize the truth (dhamma) as an
unknown individual? Having myself attained omnis-
cience, I would send across all my fellow folks
along with the devas (sadevakam). By this my
devoted deed (adhikāra) done towards the Buddha,
the most excellent man, may I attain omniscience
and send across many people.
Having cut off the stream of repeated rebirths
(Samsāra) and destroyed three kinds of existences,
I would myself mount upon the ship of dhamma and
send across my fellow folks along with the devas
Wherefore to an individual who, however, aspires to become Buddha -
His aspiration accomplishes with the combined
occurrence of eight requisite conditions
1. becoming a human-being;
2. the gaining of male sex;
3. the circumstantial cause;
4. seeing the Master (Satthā);
5. renunciation to become a monk;
6. possession of noble qualities;
7. devoted deed of service;
8. eager desire.
1.26. Established only in the existence of a human being, the aspiration of an individual, who aimed at Buddhahood
is well accomplished. On the other hand, the prayer of a dragon
or of a swift-winged garula bird or of a divinity or of sakka,
the king of devas is not efficacious. In the human existence
also, the prayer of an individual, who has with him male sex-
organ only becomes efficacious; that of a woman, or a eunuch,
or of one who has no sex organs, or of an individual, who has
the sex organs of both male and female, does not materialise.
Even in the case of a male man, his aspiration becomes accomplished only if there exists sufficient circumstantial cause
for the attainment of arahatship in that very life of his; but not otherwise. For proper equipment of sufficient circumstantial cause also, the prayer must be made only in the presence of a living Buddha so that his prayer may be efficacious; On the other hand the prayer that is made, on the demise (parinibbūta)
of the Buddha, or in the presence of a shrine, or at the foot
of the Bodhi tree, does not come to fruition. Even for the
aspiration made in the presence of Buddhas, only that one, which
is done, by one, who is established and recognised as renounced
recluse, becomes perfected; but not so, is the one of an
individual, who is understood as a householder. Even that of a recluse, only the aspiration of one, who had gained the eight
spiritual attainments (samāpatti) and five forms of super-knowledge (abhiññā) gets accomplishment; but not so is that of one, who is devoid of the said virtuous attainments. By virtuous
attainment also is that by which one's own life stands completely
dedicated to the Buddhas. It is on account of this service of his, the aspiration of one who has done his devoted deed of service, fully comes to perfection, but not because of anything else. Of the one who has fully done his devoted deed of service
also, the prayer of such a one as he who has great desire, endeavour, effort and thorough search only becomes efficacious;
but not that of another.
1.27. There, in that context, this is the illustration
of being of great desire:- If, indeed, whoever were to think thus:- I am capable of going thither, crossing over with my own physical strength the entire bowel of this world cycle, which had become concentrated into a single solid, he arrives at Buddhahood. Or else, whoever, however, is capable of going to the bank beyond by going on foot, treading upon the entire bowel of the world cycle, completely covered with bamboo bushes after
removing them, he attains Buddhahood. Or else, whoever, however,
is capable of going to the bank beyond by going on foot, treading
upon a mixture of javelins and sharp points of spears and stamping down javelins all over the bowels of the world cycle, he
attains Buddhahood. Or else, whoever, however, is capable of reaching the other bank by crossing over the entire bowels of the
world cycle, treading with his feet on the surface filled and
levelled even with burning coal, he attains Buddhahood. Whoever
considers that there is none among these which is difficult to be
done by himself; saying: 'I shall cross over this also and reach
the further shore'. In this way, he is himself properly endowed
with great desire, endeavour, effort and thorough search (pariyetthi). The aspiration of such a soul alone accomplishes
but not that of another. Therefore, the hermit Sumedha brought
together these eight requisites made a resolve to become Buddha and lay himself down.
1.28. Dīpańkara, the Glorious One also, came and stood at the head of the hermit Sumedha, when he saw the hermīt Sumedha lying on the top of the mud with his eyes kept open, his eyes endowed with five pleasing colours, like unto the opening of the bejewelled lineage, invoked His knowledge of the future saying to Himself: "This hermit made a resolve for Buddhahood and laid himself down; Will this one's aspiration be accomplished or not? Thus reflecting, He came to know thus: "A hundred thousand aeons (kappa), over, and above four sets of innumerable aeons (kappa) from now, having passed over that period of time, this one will become Buddha, Gotama by name." In the midst of the assembly,
while yet standing, He made this prophesy: "Do you all notice this hermit of noble austerity, who lay himself down on the surface of the mud? the disciples replied: "yes, we did, Venerable Sir!" "this one lay himself down after resolving to become Buddha, Gotama by name. In that physique of his, however, he will be the resident of the city of Kapilavatthu. His mother's name will be Māyā devī. His father will be known as King Suddhodana. his chief disciple will be Upatissa and his second disciple will be known as Kolita. The serving attendant of that Buddha will be Khemā Therī and His second female disciple will be Uppalavanā***(Pg.31) Therī by name. This hermit then, when his intelligence would become fully matured, would make a great renunciation, lead an extremely strenuous life of austerity, receive as alms-food, milk-rice at the foot of the Nigrodha banyan tree, enjoy his meal on the bank of the Nerañjara river, go up the terrace of the bodhi tree and become fully enlightened Buddha at the foot of the Assattha tree. Therefore, it has been stated:
"Dīpanńkara,***(Pg.31) the knower of the world, the giver of
sacrificial gifts stood at the top end of my head and
spoke these words about me:
'You see this hermit with the braided hair and of
austerity! In a far future kappa, entirely incalcula-
ble from now, he will become Buddha.
Born, he will be, in the delightful city called Kapila.
The Tathāgata***(Pg.32) will renounce the world and
leading a spiritual life of strenuous austerity he will
do deeds difficult to be done.
Seated under the goat-herd's banyan tree, the Tathāgata
will accept there the milk-rice and go towards the
Nerañjara river. That Conqueror would enjoy the meal
of milk-rice on the bank of Nerañjara and thereafter
would approach the base of the bodhi***(Pg.32)tree
walking along the well-prepared path. The unsurpassa-
ble, thereafter, will circumambulate the terrace of the
bodhi tree and the man of great fame will become the
fully enlightened Buddha at the foot of the Assattha
The Mother who gives birth to this one will be Māyā by
name. The father will be known as Suddhodana and this
hermit will become Gotama Buddha. His chief disciples
will be Upatissa and Kolita, free from cankers,
(āsavagen)***(Pg.32) devoid of lust, (rāga), whose
minds are tranquilled and self-composed; the attendant
Ānanda, by name, will attend on that conqueror. His
chief female disciples will be Khemā and Uppalavaņņā,
free from cankers (āsava), devoid of lust (rāga) tran-
quil-minded and self-composed (samāhita). The Bodhi
tree of that glorious Buddha is called Assattha".
1.29. On hearing that prophecy, the hermit Sumedha
became delighted in mind with the thought: "I am told that my
aspiration will be accomplished. The great crowd of people, hearing the words of the Dasabala Dīpańkara to the effect that the hermit Sumedha was the seed (bīja) and sapling (ańkura) of Buddha, became full of joy and gladness. Thus also, they thought: "Just as, namely, people, in crossing a river, not being able to pass over by a straight landing-place, have to cross by a lower landing-place, exactly in the same way, we also,
not gaining the right path and fruition in the dispensation of
this Buddha Dīpańkara also, praised the future Buddha (Bodhisatta), honoured him with eight handfuls of flowers,
circumambulated him and departed thence. Those four hundred thousand canker-free (khīņāsava) disciples also honoured the Bodhisat with perfumes and garlands, circumambulated him, and
departed thence. Celestial and human beings, on the other hand, likewise paid their homage by bowing down and departed.
1.30. After the departure of all, the Bodhisat rose up from his lying pose and sat down in a cross-legged posture on top of the heap of flowers, saying to himself: "I shall investigate
or seek what perfections (pāramī)" to look for. When the Bodhisat was so seated, celestial beings in the entire ten thousand world-cycles offered their congratulations and especially eulogised the Bodhisat with all kinds of eulogies thus: "Venerable hermit Sumedha! When previous Bodhisats of old were seated in crosslegged posture, investigating perfections, whatever, namely foregoing omens presented themselves, all of them have become apparent now. Undoubtedly, you will become Buddha. We all know this: 'To whomever these signs occur, he is sure to be Buddha'. You might make your own exertion firm and seized the opportunity" Therefore, it has been stated:
Human and celestial beings on hearing this prophetic
statement of the peerless great sage (mahesī) were
greatly glad (āmoditā), to be told that this hermit
was the seed of Buddha. Sounds of acclamation prevailed
and there was clapping of hands and cheering (hasanti)
also. Along with devas the entire ten thousand world-
cycle of men bowed with clasped hands.
should we suffer failure in the dispensation of this
world-protector (Lokanātha), in time not yet come, we
shall have the chance to become (bound for nibbāna)
in the presence of this (hermit). Just as people,
crossing a river, having failed (to reach) the opposite
bank, passed over the great river after taking the
crossing at the great river after taking the crossing
at the lower fording-place, exactly in the same way,
should we all miss this Conqueror for our emancipation,
in the distant future we might be (emancipated) in the
presence of this one. Dīpańkara, the Knower of the
world (lokavidū), the worthy recipient of sacrificial
gifts, after announcing my deed (Kamma) lifted His
right foot. All the sons of the Conqueror, who were
there, circumambulated me. Human beings, dragons and
Gandhabba fairies paid their homage to me and took
their departure. When my seeing of the World Protector
together with his organisation of monks was over, I
then rose up from my seat with my gladdened and joyful
mind. I became blissful with happiness, I was
gladdened with joy; over-whelmed with zest also, I then
crossed my legs, Seated cross-legged I then reflected
thus: 'At my will and pleasure I can get into any state
of the four Jhaānas and have arrived at perfection in
super-knowledge. There are no hermits to equal me in
the ten thousand worlds, I have no equal in magical
powers. Such sort of happiness have I gained'.
To me in my cross-legged posture, inhabitants of the
ten thousand universes made a loud proclamation: "you
will definitely become Buddha: Whatever omens were
made visible to the previous bodhisattas in their
excellent cross-legged postures, they are now apparent:
Cold becomes dispelled and heat gets extinguished.
Such phenomena are now to be seen. Certainly, you will
become Buddha". "The ten thousand world-elements
become silent and undisturbed such phenomena present
themselves today. Surely you will become Buddha".
Strong winds do not blow, rivers stop flowing;
such phenomena occur today. You will definitely
become Buddha". "On that ancient occasion flowering
trees and plants growing on dry land and wet water
became bloomful of flowers; such a phenomenon does
occur today also entirely. Definite it is that you
will become Buddha". "On similar significant occasions
previously, fruit-bearing flora, whether they were
trees or climbers, they all bore fruits; they also
are all full of fruits now. It is sure, therefore,
you will become Buddha".
"Previously then, heavenly and earthly jewels shone
with splendour; those selfsame jewels do show their
shining splendour now also. It is certain, therefore,
you will become Buddha".
"Previously, then, human and divine musical instruments
sounded; now also both kinds of music are at their
highest pitch. You will surely become Buddha".
"Previously, then, there showered down from the sky
above, variegated flowers; the selfsame flowers
are raining down now also. Certainly indeed,
you will become Buddha." "The mighty ocean (then)
receded, the great earth, ten thousand (yojanas
in extent), quaked; both of them, now also, are
extremely noisy. You are sure to become Buddha".
"Previously the, flames of fire in hells, ten
thousand (yojanas in extent) were extinguished;
now also, those self-same flames of fire are
cooled down. Surely, you will become Buddha."
"The sun was (then) stainless and all the stars
showed themselves; they are similarly seen now
also. Certainly, you will become Buddha."
"Previously then, there was water in spite of
absence of rain shower, and it sprouted up from
the earth; now also water is springing up from
the ground. You will surely become Buddha."
"Stars and planets and groups of constellations
shine on the surface of the sky; there is union
of the moon with visākha nakkhatta. Sure enough
you will become Buddha.
"Animals, living in holes and caves came out from
their own lairs (then); now also they rejected
their dungeon. Definitely, you will become
"Previously then, there was no aversion amongst
living-beings. They were well-contented. Now,
also, they all are self-satisfied. Surely, you
will become Buddha."
"There was then cessation of ailments. Hunger
also was eliminated. Today also they are to be
seen (or this is ******(Pg.36). It is sure, that you
will become Buddha."
"Clinging desire then became minute; anger and
dark delusion destroyed. Today also, all of
them are gone elsewhere. Certainly, you will
"Danger, then, did not occur; today also this
condition is seen. We know by that characteristic
that you will definitely become Buddha."
"Dust did not fly up high above. Now also, this
is seen. By that characteristic, we know that
you will surely become Buddha."
"Undesirable smell departed; celestial perfume
filled the air with fragrance (then). Now also
the selfsame sweet scent blows with the breeze.
Surely you will become Buddha."
"Except the incorporeal ones all the divine beings
showed themselves (then). All of them are to be
seen now also. Certainly you will become Buddha."
"Previously, then, all were visible, namely, as
far as purgatory. Now also they all are visible.
Definitely, you will become Buddha."
"Previously, then, walls, doors and rocks were no
hindrances (āvaranā). Now, also, they have
become empty sky-space. Surely, you will become
"They, at that moment, there did not exist any
death or birth (i.e. passing away or springing up),
Do catch hold of your exertion firmly; do not give
up, but do go ahead. We also know well about this.
You will certainly become Buddha."
1.31. The Bodhisat, having heard the prophecy of the Dasabala Dīpańkara and the statement of the divine beings from the ten thousand world-cycles, became all the more roused up with energetic exertion and considered thus:- "It is not in the nature of Buddhas to speak vainly. There is no mistake in the statement of Buddhas. Just as, indeed, there is certainty in the dropping down of a clod (leddu) thrown up the sky, certainty of death to one who is born, certainly of sunrise when night comes to an end, certainty of roaring the lion's roar for the lion, which has come out from its lair, certainty of inevitable phenomenon of discharging her heavy load by a woman with heavy pregnancy, so also there is certainty, namely, in the prophetic statement of Buddhas not made in vain. Sure enough, I shall become Buddha". Therefore, it has been stated:-
"Having heard both the prophecy of the Buddha and
the statement of inhabitants of ten thousand world-
cycles, I then became satisfied, joyful and glad and
considered thus: Never is their nature that Buddhas
make statements that break asunder. neither do Con-
querors speak in vain nor is there untruth in Buddhas.
I shall, surely, become Buddha.
Just as a clod (leddu) thrown up high toward the sky
does definitely fall down to the ground, so also the
statement of most excellent Buddhas is definite and
permanent. For the Buddhas there is no utterance of
untruth, and so I am to become a Buddha sure and
certain. Just as death is sure and certain to
all living beings, in the same way, sure and
certain, is the statement of most excellent Buddhas.
Just as the roaring of the lion, which has come out
of its lair, is certain, so also sure and certain
is the statement of most excellent Buddhas.
Just as the delivery of a burden-like baby is definite
for the living-being who has arrived at (the
mother's womb) so also the statement of most
excellent Buddhas is definite and lasting.
1.32. He made this self-determination thus: "Sure and certain shall I become Buddha". Investigating the entire spiritual element (dhammadhātu) in its serial order, in order to carry out the conditions (dhamma) that go to make a Buddha, saying to himself: 'What, indeed, are conditions (dhamma) that go to make a Buddha?, what is there, above or below, or facing direct or corners', he visualised first of all the perfection of offering charity repeatedly adhered to by his predecessor bodhisats, and admonished himself thus:- "Wise Sumedha! From now on, you should fulfil, first of all, the perfection of offering charity. Just as, indeed, a turned-upside-down water-jar does but spill (vamati) water, making the container entirely empty and does not accept again, exactly in the same way, you will become Buddha, seated at the base of the Bodhi tree, after giving away, leaving nothing, all that was wanted and needed, to all comers with their individual requests, regardless of your own wealth or retainers of wife along, with children or bodily limbs, big and small". Thus did he make his mind well-established by making firm the perfection in offering charity, first of all. Therefore, it has been stated;
"Now, I investigate the deeds (dhamma), done by
(previous) Buddhas, hither, thither, above, below,
the ten directions, as far as the deed-element
(dhammadhātu) extend. Investigating than, I perceived,
first of all, the perfection in offering charity, the
great procedure (patha) serially practised by previous
Great Sages. Should you desire to attain full
enlightment (bodhi), go, first of all, now, by this
path of perfection in offering charity, after under-
taking to do it firmly.
Just as a well-filled water-jar, when down-turned
for anybody, spills its water completely and does
not look after (it), all over there, in the same
way, when you see beggars, whether inferior, superior
or indifferent, do give charity, leaving nothing with
you, like a water-jar turned upside down."
1.33. Then, when he reasoned out further on, saying to himself: 'There must be, indeed, not this much alone, the deeds done preliminarily by previous Buddhas', he saw the second the perfection in moral precepts (sīla); and said to himself: 'Wise Sumedha! From now onwards, you should fulfil the perfection in moral precepts (sīla). Just as, indeed, the beast with bushy tail called Camarī protects its own tail-hair regardless of its life, in the same way, you also, from now on, should become Buddha looking after your moral precepts (sīla) only, regardless of your own life'. Thus, he undertook upon (or made himself steadfast) rendering himself the second perfection of moral precept (sīla), firm. Therefore, it has been stated:-
"These (preliminary) deeds of previous Buddhas
(Buddhadhamma) would not be this much only.
I shall investigate other similar deeds for
the maturity of my enlightenment (bodhi).
Investigating then, I perceived the second
perfection of precepts devotedly practised
by previous Great Sages. Now, if you want
to attain enlightenment (bodhi), precede with
the perfection of precepts (sīla) undertaking
upon yourself steadfastly by making this second
Just as the beast, belonging to the species with
priceless hairy-tail courts death thither, where-
ever its tail gets entangled, rather than spoil
its tail, similarly so, you should completely
fulfil the precepts in their four stages
(bhūmi). Keep a thorough watch ever your
precepts at all times like the yak ox
(camarī) over its tail".
1.34. Then, when the reasoned out still further on, saying to himself: There must be indeed, not this much only, such deeds as were done by previous Buddhas, he saw the third perfection in renunciation (nekkhamma), and said to himself this: "Wise Sumedha! From now on, you should fulfil the perfection in renunciation. Just as, indeed, a man living for a long time in a house of bondage, has no affection for that place; moreover, he gets indeed, dissatisfied even, and he becomes desirous of not living there anymore. Exactly in the same way, you also, identifying all existences with a place of imprisonment, being dissatisfied with all existences, should become bent upon escape and look forward toward renunciation. In this way, you will become Buddha". Therefore, it has been stated:
"Not this much only these deeds of previous
Buddhas would be. I shall investigate other
ones also whichever make my enlightenment
(bodhi) mature." Investigating the, I perceived
the third perfection in renunciation, devotedly
adhered to by previous Great Sages. 'Now, take
upon yourself well and firmly, the third
perfection in renunciation and go on thus, if you
want to attain bodhi, to become Buddha.' "Just
as a man in a prison house, living there long
with standing discomfort does not beget any
attachment there, but seeks his escape only,
similarly you, had better look upon all existences
as resembling prison-houses and look forward toward
renunciation for entire escape from existences."
1.35. Then, when he reasoned out still further on, thinking: 'There must, indeed, be not this much only the deeds done by previous Buddhas;, he saw the fourth perfection in knowledge (paññā pāramī), and this occurred to him: "Wise Sumedha! From now on, you should fulfil the perfection in knowledge (paññā pāramī) also. Without avoiding anyone among inferiors, equals (majhima) and superiors, you should approach all wise men also and ask questions. Just as, indeed, a monk who maintains himself on begged food in his own bowl only, does not avoid any donor amongst such categories of families namely inferior, etc., goes on his begging beat from house to house, continuously, and obtains quickly his sustenance, exactly in the same way you also approach all wise men and ask questions and you will become Buddha". Thereupon, he established himself making the fourth perfection in knowledge (paññāpāramī) firm. Therefore, it has been stated:-
"The deeds of Buddhas could not be, indeed, this
much only. I shall investigate other deeds also
that might mature my bodhi. Investigating then,
I saw the fourth perfection in knowledge, consistently
carried out by previous Great Sages. You now proceed
to perfection in knowledge, which is the fourth,
taking it upon yourself and making it firmly fast.
Just as a bhikkhu in his beat obtains his sustenance
in such a way that he does not omit any (house of)
families (discriminating against them as) inferior
superior or middle-class, similarly (so) you had better
proceed toward perfection in knowledge, comprehensively
questioning wise and enlightened people at all times.
1.36. Then, when he reasoned out still further on, thinking: 'Not this much only, must have been the deeds done by previous Buddhas', he saw the fifth perfection in exertion (vīriya pāramī), and this idea occurred to him: "Wise Sumedha! From now on, you should fulfil the perfection in exertion (vīriya pāramī) also. Just as, indeed, the king of beasts, the lion, is firmly energetic in all his postures and movements, similarly so, you also will become Buddha by being firmly energetic, adhering to exertion regarding all your postures and movements in all your existences." Accordingly, he made up his mind making the fifth perfection in exertion (vīriya pāramī) firm. Therefore, it has been stated:
"The deeds of Buddhas must, indeed, be not this
much only; I shall investigate and find out other
such deeds as would mature my bodhi. Investigating
then, I found the fifth perfection in exertion con-
sistantly carried out by Great Sages previously.
You might proceed now to this fifth perfection in
exertion (vīriya pāramī), taking it upon yourself
and making it firm. Just as the leader of deer,
the lion, never lacks exertion whether seated,
standing or walking about, and always has a lofty
mind, similarly so, you will attain your own full
enlightenment and become Buddha by proceeding toward
the perfection in exertion, and promoting firm
exertion in all your existences."
1.37. Then when he reasoned out still further on, thinking: 'Not this much only, must have been the deeds done by previous Buddhas,' he saw the sixth perfection in patience (khantī pāramī), and this idea occurred to him: "Wise Sumedha! From now on, you should fulfil the perfection in patience. You should be equally patient towards those who honour you as well as those who disregard you. Just as, indeed, to on the ground people throw down things both pure and impure and consequent upon that action, the earth does neither get attracted nor repulsed; it exercises patience; it bears and endures even; exactly in the same way, you also will become Buddha by being patient toward those who respect you as well as those who treat you with contempt." Accordingly, he made up his mind making the sixth perfection in patience (Khantī pāramī), firm. Therefore, it has been stated:-
"The deeds of Buddhas must, indeed, be not this
must only, I shall investigate and find out other
such deeds as would mature my bodhi. Investigating
then, I found the sixth perfection in patience,
consistently carried out by Great Sages, previously.
You had better take upon yourself making this sixth
perfection firm now and you will attain full Buddha-
hood if your mind is undivided but sincere there.
Just as, namely, the earth ;bears all that is thrown
down upon it, the clean as well as the dirty and
does not do any malice thereby, similarly so, you
also will attain your own bodhi by proceeding with
the practice of perfection in patience and by being
indifferent to all respects paid and contempts cast.
1.38. Then, he reasoned out still further on, thinking 'Not this much only must have been the deeds done by previous Buddhas', he saw the seventh perfection in truth (sacca pāramī) and this idea occurred to him: "Wise Sumedha! From now on, you should fulfil the perfection in truth. Do not tell, namely, deliberate lie, under the influence of desire, etc., for the benefit of wealth, even if (********Pg.44) is dropping down on your head. Just as, (yathā nāma) indeed, the star of healing (osadhi tārakā), namely, never goes along another ***(Pg.44) it abandoning its own orbiting course in all seasons, but keeps on orbiting along its own track, exactly in the same way, you also, will become Buddha, only by not speaking, any falsehood, forsaking truth". Accordingly, he made up his mind, making the seventh perfection in truth firmly. Therefore, it has been stated:
The deeds of Buddhas must, indeed, be not this
much only, I shall investigate and find out other
such deeds as would mature my bodhi. Investigation
then, I found the seventh perfection in truth, con-
sistently carried out by Great Sages previously.
You should take upon yourself, making this seventh
perfection firm now and you will attain full Buddha-
hood if your speech is not dubious but sincere there.
Just as, namely, the star of healing (osadhi), along
with similar other heavenly bodies, whether in the
rainy season or other seasons, does not deviate from
its orbital path, similarly you also will attain
full Buddhahood by proceeding along the path of
perfection in truth, without deviating from the
path of truths.
1.39. Then, when the reasoned out still further on, thinking: 'Not this much only, must have been the deeds done by previous Buddhas', he saw the eighth perfection in resolution (adhiţţhāna) and this idea occurred to him: "Wise Sumedha! From now on, you should fulfil the perfection in resolution. You should be unshakable on such resolution, as made by you. Just as, indeed, *********(Pg.45) a mountain-hill, when struck by winds blowing to it from all directions, does neither tremble nor shake, but stands in its place only, similarly, you also will become Buddha by being unshakable in your own self-determination." Accordingly, he made up his mind making the eight perfection in self-determination firm. Therefore, it has been stated:-
"The deeds of Buddhas must, indeed, be not this
much only; I shall investigate and find out other
such deeds as would mature my bodhi. Investigating
then, I found the eighth perfection in self-deter-
mination, consistently carried out by Great Sages,
You had better take upon yourself, making this eighth
perfection firm now and you will attain full Buddha-
hood by your becoming unshakable there. Just as
also a well-established, unshakable rocky mountain
does neither tremble nor shake due to strong winds,
but remains standing in its own place only, similarly,
you had better also be unshakable always in your
resolution, walking along the path of perfection
in resolution and you will attain full Buddhahood."
1.40 Then, when he reasoned out still further on, thinking: 'Not this much only, must have been the deeds done by previous Buddhas', he saw the ninth perfection in loving kindness (mettā pāramī) and this idea occurred to him: "Wise Sumedha! From now on, you should fulfil the perfection in loving kindness. You should be of one mind to those who are beneficial to you as well as to the who are not beneficial to you. Just, as, indeed, ******* ********(Pg.46) its cool condition to an evil person as well as to a good ******(Pg.46), equating the two as one and the same, similarly, you also ***********(Pg.46) Buddha, being of one mind, with a heart of living kindness toward *****(Pg.46) living beings" Accordingly, he made up his *****(Pg.46) making firm, the ninth perfection in loving kindness. Therefore, it has been stated:
"The deeds of Buddha must, indeed, be not this
much only; I shall investigate and find out other such
deeds as would mature my bodhi. Investigating
then, I found the ninth perfection in loving
kindness, consistently carried out by Great Sages,
previously. You might (or had better) take upon
yourself, making the ninth perfection firm now;
if you want to attain full Buddhahood, rather be
peerless in loving kindness. Just as, the water
pervades the good and the bad people equally with
coolness, washing away dusty impurities, similarly,
you also will attain full Buddhahood by proceeding
along the path of loving kindness in developing
loving kindness equally towards these who are
beneficial to you or those who are not.
1.41. Then, when he reasoned out still further on, thinking: 'Not this much only, must have been the deeds done by previous Buddhas", he saw the tenth perfection in equanimity (upekkhā pāramī) and this idea occurred to him" "Wise Sumedha! From now on, you should fulfil the perfection in equanimity. In prosperity as well as in adversity, you should be indifferent only. Just as, indeed, the earth is indifferent when things clean or dirty are thrown on it, exactly in the same way, you also will become Buddha by being indifferent amidst prosperity and adversity" Accordingly, he made up his mind, making firm the tenth perfection in equanmity". Therefore, it has been stated:
The deeds of Buddha must, indeed, be not this
much only; I shall investigate and find out
other such deeds as would mature my bodhi.
Investigating then, I found the tenth perfection
in equanimity, carried out consistently by Great
Sages, previously. You had better take upon yourself
making the tenth perfection firm now, and you will
attain full Buddhahood by being well-balanced like a
pair of scales. Just as, namely the earth looks
on indifferently on both the clean and dirty matter
thrown down on it, being free from anger and favour,
similarly so, you also had better be always like a pair
of scales well-balanced, amidst happiness and misery.
Proceeding the path of perfection in equanimity you
will attain full Buddhahood.
1.42 He, therefore, thought: "In this world, this much are the deeds done by Buddhas, which ought to be fulfilled by Bodhisats for the perfect maturity of their bodhi. There is nothing else besides the ten perfections. These ten perfections also are not in the sky, above Neither are they on the earth below. They are not in the east neither on the other directions. They are, however, in me alone, stationed inside my heart." In this way, seeing their being stationed in his heart, he made all of them also firm and well-determined. Grasping them again and again, he meditated on them in direct and reverse order. Seizing at the extreme end, the beginning was caused to be reached. Catching hold of the beginning, the extreme end was caused to be reached. Seizing at the centre, he caused the end on both sides to be *******(Pg.48) reached. Seizing at both the extremities, he brought the matter to an end making the middle to be reached. 'The entire sacrifice of external treasure constitutes perfection in charity (cānapāramī), all round sacrifice of bodily limbs constitutes minor, but higher perfection in charity and thorough sacrifice of one's own life constitutes absolutely highest perfection in charity', thinking thus, he meditated upon altogether thirty perfections, comprising the ten ordinary perfections, the ten higher perfections and the ten highest perfections, as if oiling and repeating and as if whirling the mighty ocean of the world-cycle, making the massive Meru mountain the head. While he was thus meditating upon the ten perfections, this great earth, which is as dense as two hundred thousand leagues (yojanas), over and above four nahutas, shook, trembled and quaked, resounding with noisy echoing sounds, resembling either a bundle of reeds being trodden upon by an elephant, or sugar-cane being pressed down in a squeezing machine, due to the power of his deed. The same great earth reeled also like a potter's wheel and oil-making machine. Therefore, it has been stated:
"So much only are there, in the world, all the deeds
that make your bodhi mature; over and above them,
there is nothing else. You had better establish
yourself firmly there. When these deeds, their nature,
essence and characteristics are meditated upon, the
earth, ten thousand (leagues) in extent, quaked owing
to the power of the deed. The earth shakes and rumbles
resembling sugar-cane in its pressing machine. Similar
to a wheel in an oil-producing machine, so shakes the
1.43 Because of the quaking of the great earth, residents of the city of Ramma, being unable to keep themselves properly standing, fell down here and there, as if released and driven out of a spacious hall by a stormy whirl-wind. Water jars etc., as well as potters' vessels, as they moved about, hit each other and became broken to pieces and reduced to powder. The panic-stricken public approached the Great Teacher and asked thus: "O! Glorious One! What indeed is this? Is this the turning round of the mighty dragon or the turning round of any one among devilish demons? Indeed, we all do not know about this. nevertheless, we all, the entire mass, are distressed, indeed. How is that, indeed? Will there be evil for this would? Otherwise, will there be good? Please explain this matter to us." Thereupon, on hearing what they said, the Master spoke thus: "You all need not be afraid. Do not be thinking anxiously. There is no danger for you, on account of this occurrence. That wise man Sumedha, whom I prophesied today that he would become Buddha, Gotama by name, in time to come, is, at the present moment, meditating upon the ten perfections. While he is stirring and meditating upon them, due to the power of his deeds, the entire ten thousand world-elements shook and rumbled simultaneously." Therefore, it has been stated:
"As big as the assembly of people offering
males to the Buddha were present, that assembly
there, trembling all over, sought escape and lay
on the ground. Thousands of water-jars and many
hundreds of pots and pans, colliding each other
crushed into pieces and powder there. The big
body of people, *******(Pg.50) agitated, shaken up,
frightened, staggered and wavering-minded, came
together and approached the Buddha Dīpańkara,
with these words: 'O Lord of Insight! What
will happen to the world? Is it good or evil?
The entire world is distressed. Please dispel
that disaster.' Then the Great Sage Dīpańkara
notified to them:
'In this earth-quake, be you confident, do not
be afraid. This one about whom today I prophesied
that he would become Buddha in the world is medi-
tating upon the deed, consistently carried out by
previous conquerors. When he is meditating upon
the deed conducive towards becoming Buddha in its
entire entity, consequently, this ten thousand
extensive earth along with heaven quaked."
1.44. The big body of people became satisfied and joyful on hearing the words of the Buddha, brought with them garlands of flowers, perfumes and sweet scents, came out of the city of Ramma, approached the Bodhisat, honoured him with garlands, sweet scents, etc., paid homage to him circumambulated him and entered the Ramma city. The Bodhisat also meditated upon the ten perfections, made his exertion firm, formed his own resolution and rose up from his seated seat. Therefore, it is stated:
"Having heard the words of the Buddha, their minds
then and there became tranquil. All the people
approached me and paid their homage to me also
Taking upon myself the virtues of the Buddha.
I made my mind firm. Having paid my homage to
the Buddha Dipankara, I then rose up from my
1.45 Thereafter, the celestial beings of the entire ten thousand world-cycles assembled together, honoured the Bodhisat as the latter rose from his seat, with celestial garlands and scents, paid homage to him and proclaimed ceremonial praises by saying in the beginning: "Venerable hermit Sumedha! Great aspiration was made by you, today, at the feet of the Dasabala Dīpańkara. May that aspiration of yours be accomplished without any interference. Let no danger and intimidation occur to you. In your body let there not arise any whit even of ailment. Speedily fulfil the perfections and accordingly achieve the full enlightenment of Buddha. Just as the flower plants and fruit trees bear blossoms and fruits in proper season, similarly, you also should come in contact with the most excellent self-enlightenment of Buddha speedily before the expiry of time-limit." Having proclaimed thus, the celestial beings went back to their own celestial abodes. The Bodhisat also, having thus been duly praised by the celestial beings, said to himself: "Having fulfilled the ten perfections, I shall become Buddha on the expiry of a hundred thousand aeons (kappa) over and above four sets of innumerable world-cycles. Having made his own resolution after strengthening his exertion, the hermit rose up into the sky and went back to the Himalayas even. Therefore, it has been stated:
"Both celestial and human beings scattered down
on to me, as I rose up from my seat, flowers,
celestial and human. Both of them, human and
divine beings let me know my prosperity: 'Your
aspiration is great. May you get it according as
you desire. May all calamities abandon you. May
your anxieties and ailments disappear. Let there
be no hindrances for you. You had better attain the
most excellent bodhi, quickly:
Just as when proper season arrives, the flowering
trees and plants blossom, similarly, you also,
O Great Hero! fulfil the ten perfections. Just
as some and all omniscient Buddhas became Buddhas
on the terrace of their individual bodhi tree,
similarly you also, O Great Hero! please become
Buddha at the bodhi-tree of the Conqueror.
Just as some and all omniscient Buddhas turned the
wheel of Dhamma, similarly, you also O Great Hero!
please turn the wheel of Dhamma.
Just as on the full-moon night, the perfectly pure
moon shines exceedingly, similarly, you also with
a full heart, please shine brightly on the ten
thousand extensive area. Just as the sun, released
from its eclipse, out-shines with its brilliance,
similarly, you also, please shine specially with
your glory, having escaped from the material world.
Just as some and all rivers flow down into the great
ocean, similarly, may this world of men and world of
divine beings be prone to your presence. Praised
and eulogised by them, he took upon himself the task
of fulfilling entirely those ten deeds of perfection
and then entered the forest."
The Sumedha episode has ended.
1.46 The residents of Ramma city entered their city
and gave a great offering to the organisation of bhikkhus led
by Buddha. The Master preached the Dhamma to them, caused the
multitudes to be established in the three-gem-refuges etc.,
and took his departure from the Ramma city. Thereafter, further
on, the Buddha Dipankara spent the span of his life doing all the
duties of Buddha and eventually passed away, leaving nothing of
substratum of existence behind, into perfect immortal peace by
means of the element of nibbāna.(1) There whatever is to be said
in that context ought to be extensively explained entirely according as has even been stated in the Buddhavaŋsa.***(Pg.53)
Indeed, it has been stated there thus:-
"Then they let the Protector of the world enjoy His
meal along with his clergy of disciples and approached
Him to take their refuge in the master Dipankara.**(Pg
53) The Tathāgata allowed some of them to go into the
Three Refuges (saraņa), some to observe the five
moral precepts and others to take upon themselves
the observance of ten kinds of precepts. The
Buddha casually gave some of them the four most
excellent fruitions, while to some, He imparted
analytical knowledge of the incomparable Dhamma.
The Bull among men conferred on some of them the
eight excellent meditative attainments (samāpatti)
and bestowed upon some of them the three kinds of
enlightened knowledge and six sorts of super-
knowledge. By means of that connection, the Great
Sage admonished the body of people, and because of
that, the dispensation of the Protector of the world
became extensive. The great bull-bodied and great
jawed personage, (mahāanu'sabhakkhandha) known by
the name of Dīpańkara, sent across (tārayati) many
men and made them totally escape evil existence
(duggatim). Seeing a person deserving enlightenment,
at a far-distant place of hundred thousand yojanas
even, the Great Sage went near him in a moment's
time and made him enlightened.
On the first great occasion for the realisation of
Dhamma, Buddha enlightened a hundred crores of
people. On the second special occasion of the
realisation of Dhamma, the Protector enlightened
ninety crores. When the Buddha preached the Dhamma
in the abode of devas, however, on the third great
occasion of the realisation of Dhamma, there were
ninety thousand crores. There were three thousand
crores of people meeting together and this constitu
ted the first assembly of the Master Dīpańkara.
Again, at the Narada peak, when the Conqueror went
into solitude, a hundred crores of pure arahats,
whose cankers (āsava) had dried up, came together.
When the Great hero was on the high hill of rocky
Sudassana, the Great Sage celebrated the closing
ceremony of the lent season, (pavāraņā) with ninety
thousand crores. In those days, I was a high ranking
hermit, practising austerity and wearing plaited hair
and being an accomplished master in super-knowledge,
used to be a traveller in the sky. I got the grasp
of the Dhamma among the ten and twenty thousand people.
Beyond calculation in numerals were those of the
singles and doubles, who then realised the Dhamma. The
well-purified dispensation of the Glorious Dīpańkara
Buddha became at that time extensive, understood by
multitude, miraculous and prosperous. Four hundred
thousand disciples endowed with six kinds of super-
knowledge and great magical powers, at all times sur-
rounded Dīpańkara, knower of the world. Whoever, in
those days, abandoned their human existence without
attaining any of the fruitions of the four right paths,
they were censured. The flora-like preaching of the
Buddha bore flowers properly with such blossoms as
peerlessly pure arahats whose cankers (āsava) had been
dried up and therefore it shone forth forever.
So far as the Master Dīpańkara's life-story is
concerned: he was the king Sudeva, by name, whose city
was Rammavatī and whose queen was Sumedhā by name,
For ten thousand years he led the household life in
his three most excellent palaces known as the Swan,
(Hamsa), the Heron, (Koñca)and the peacock, (Mayura).
That lady, his queen-mother padumā, by name, who had
a retinue of well-decorated women, three thousand in
number gave birth to this bull-like son. Seeing
the four omens, (nimitta) he renounced the world
riding (his royal) elephant. For not less than
ten months the Conqueror strove with strenuous
effort to become Buddha. Having practised the
strenuous austere practice, the Sage became mentally
enlightened and became Buddha. On the request being
made by Brahmā, the Great Sage Dīpańkara, the Great
Hero, turned the wheel of Dhamma at the graceful
dwelling in the delightful park, Nadarāma. Seated at
the foot of Acacia Sirīsa tree He did the treading down
of the heretics. Sumańgala and Tissa became the two
chief disciples, and the thera, named Sāgata, became
the attendant of the Master Dīpańkara. Nandā as well
as Sunandā became His chief female disciples. The
bodhi tree of that Glorious Buddha was called Pipphali,
pepper tree. The two men, Tapussa and Bhallika, by name
were chief male devotees and Sirimā as well as
Koņā were chief female devotees of the Teacher
Dīpańkara. The Great Sage Dīpańkara was eighty
cubits in height. Like unto the flowering majestic
Sal-tree, and similar to the tree of the island,
Buddha Dīpańkara was graceful. His rays radiated
all round Him for twelve yojanas. The life-span
of that Great Sage was a hundred thousand years.
Living for so long a life-span, He sent across
many people (to immortal peace). Having caused
the good Dhamma to shine, he sent across (Santāretnā)
big body of people. Together with His disciples, He
passed away into nibbāna like unto the extinguishment
of a lighted mass of fire. That great magical power,
as well as that retinue and reputation of his, and
also the gem-like circles on the soles of His feet,
all of them disappeared. Are not all aggregates
The Conqueror Master Dīpańkara passed away into
nibbāna at the Nanda park. There stood the
Conqueror's stūpa, thirty six leagues (yojana)
1. Anupādisesāya nibbāna-dhātuyā parinnibbāyi.