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Tipitaka >> Vinaya Pitaka >> Khandhaka >> Mahavagga >> First Khandaka >> 1.1

Adapted from the Translation by T. W. Rhys Davids & Hermann Oldenberg


THE MAHAVAGGA

REVERENCE TO THE LORD BUDDHA, THE HOLY ONE, THE FULLY ENLIGHTENED ONE

FIRST KHANDHAKA(THE FORMATION OF THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS)

Chapter-1: Knowing Paticchasamuppada-Chain of Causation Under the Bodhi Tree.

1. At that time the Great Buddha dwelt at Uruvela, on the bank of the river Neranjara at the foot of the Bodhi tree (tree at BodhGaya), just after he had become Sambuddha(Fully Enlightened). And the Great Buddha sat cross-legged at the foot of the Bodhi tree uninterruptedly during seven days, enjoying the bliss of enlightenment (in trance state).

2. PATICCHASAMUPPADA (Chain of Causation)

Then the Lord Buddha (at the end of these seven days) during the first watch of the night fixed his mind upon the Chain of Causation(Paticchasamuppadam), in direct and in reverse order:


Avijja Pachchaya Samkhara
Samkhara Pachchaya Vinnana
Vinnana Pachchaya NaamRupam
NaamRupam Pachchaya Salayatanam
Salayatan Pachchaya Fasso
Fassa Pachchaya Vedana
Vedana Pachchaya Tanha
Tanha Pachchaya Upadanam
Upadan Pachchaya Bhavo
Bhava Pachchaya Jati
Jati Pachchaya Jaramaranam, Soka, Paridevdukkha, Domanass,Upayasa Sambhavanti
Evameva Kevalassa Dukkha Khandassa Samudayo Hoti ti

'Ignorance causes the samkharas (wrong habits/tendencies),
The samkharas causes Consciousness,
Consciousness causes NamRupam(mind & body awareness),
NamRupam causes the six Senses (mind,touch,eyesight,ear,nose,tongue),
Six Senses cause Contact(with sense objects) ,
Contact causes Sensation(within body),
Sensation causes Craving (or Desire),
Craving causes Attachment(with sense objects, people etc),
Attachment causes Existence(to become),
Cause of Existence leads to Birth,
Birth causes Old Age and Death, grief, lamentation, suffering, dejection, and despair.
Such is the origination of this whole mass of suffering.'


Avijjaye Tvavev Asesa-Virag Nirodha, Sankhar Nirodho
Sankhar Nirodha, Vinnana Nirodho
Vinnana Nirodha, NaamRup Nirodho
NaamRup Nirodha, Salayatan Nirodho
Salayatan Nirodha, Fassa Nirodho
Fassa Nirodha, Vedana Nirodho
Vedana Nirodha, Tanha Nirodho,
Tanha Nirodha, Upadan Nirodho
Upadan Nirodha, Bhav Nirodho
Bhav Nirodha, Jati Nirodho
Jati Nirodha, Jaramaranam, Soka, Paridevdukkha, Domanass, Upayasa Nirujhanti
Evameva Kevalassa Dukkha Khandassa Nirodho Hoti ti

'By the elimination of Ignorance(i.e. by remaining in mindfulness meditation), which consists in the complete absence of lust(wants), the samkharas(habits/tendencies) are stopped,
by cessation of the samkharas, the Consciousness is stopped,
by cessation of the Consciousness, the NamRupam(mind & body awareness) is stopped,
by cessation of the NamRupam, the six Senses(sense awareness) are stopped,
by cessation of the six Senses, the Contact(with sense objects) is stopped,
by cessation of the Contact, the Sensation(within body) is stopped,
by cessation of the Sensation, the Craving(desire) is stopped,
by cessation of the Craving, the Attachment(with sense objects,people etc.)is stopped,
by cessation of the Attachment, the Existence(cause of becoming) is stopped,
by cessation of the Existence, the Birth is stopped,
by cessation of the Birth, Old Age ,Death, grief, lamentation, suffering, dejection, and despair are stopped.
Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.'


3. Knowing this the Lord Buddha then on that occasion pronounced this solemn utterance:

'When the Dhamma (real nature of things/phenomenon)
becomes clear to the ardent meditating Brahmana(wise one),
then all his doubts fade away,
since he realizes the beneficient Dhamma (nature and what its cause).'

4. Then the Lord Buddha during the middle watch of the night fixed his mind upon the Chain of Causation, in direct and reverse order: 'Ignorance causes the samkharas, &c. Such is the origination of this whole mass of suffering, &c. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.'

5. Knowing this the Lord Buddha then on that occasion pronounced this solemn utterance:

'When the Dhamma (real nature of things/phenomenon)
becomes clear to the ardent, meditating Brahmana(wise one),
then all his doubts fade away,
since he has understood the cessation of causation
leading to the state beyond sensations(blissful trance state).'

6. Then the Lord Buddha during the third watch of the night fixed his mind,upon the Chain of Causation, in direct and reverse order: 'Ignorance causes the samkharas, &c. Such is the origination of this whole mass of suffering, &c. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.' &c.

7. Knowing this the Lord Buddha then on that occasion pronounced this solemn utterance:

'When the Dhamma (real nature of things/phenomenon)
becomes clear to the ardent, meditating Brahmana(wise one),
he stands, dispelling the hosts of Mara(lord of death, disease, ignorance),
like the Sun that illuminates the sky.'

Here ends the account of what passed under the Bodhi tree.

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