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Tipitaka >> Vinaya Pitaka >> Mahavagga >> First Khandaka >> 1.25

Adapted from the Translation by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann Oldenberg


THE MAHAVAGGA

FIRST KHANDHAKA(THE FORMATION OF THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS)

Chapter-25 : Assigning Instructors(upajjhayas) for Pupils & Their Duties.

1. At that time some Bhikkhus, as they had no upajjhayas (preceptors) and received no exhortation and instruction, went on their rounds for alms wearing improper under and upper garments (or, wearing their under and upper garments improperly), and in an improper attire. While people were eating, they held out their alms-bowls in which were leavings of food, over the hard food (which the people were eating), and held them out over soft food, and held them out over savoury food, and held them out over drinks. They asked for soup and boiled rice themselves, and ate it; in the dining halls they made a great and loud noise.

2. The people were annoyed, murmured, and became angry (saying), 'How can the Sakyaputtiya Samanas go on their rounds for alms wearing improper under and upper garments, . . . . (&c., as in § 1, down to drinks)? How can they make so great and loud a noise in the dining halls? They behave like Brahmanas(priests) at the dinners given to them.'

3. Some Bhikkhus heard those people that were annoyed, murmured, and had become angry. Those Bhikkhus who were moderate, frugal, modest, conscientious, anxious for training, were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: 'How can the Bhikkhus go on their rounds for alms wearing improper under and upper garments, &c.? How can they make so great and loud a noise in the dining halls?'

4. These Bhikkhus told this thing to the Lord Buddha.

In consequence of that and on this occasion the Lord Buddha, having ordered the fraternity of Bhikkhus to assemble, questioned the Bhikkhus(Monks): 'Is it true, O Bhikkhus(Monks), that some Bhikkhus go on their rounds, . . . . (&c., down to), that they make a great and loud noise in the dining halls?'

'It is true, Lord.'

5. Then the Great Buddha rebuked those Bhikkhus: 'It is improper, O Bhikkhus(Monks), what these foolish persons are doing, it is unbecoming, indecent, un worthy of Samanas, unallowable, and to be avoided. How can these foolish persons, O Bhikkhus(Monks), go on their rounds, &c.? How can they make so great and loud a noise in the dining halls? This will not do, O Bhikkhus(Monks), for converting the unconverted, and for augmenting the number of the converted; but it will result, O Bhikkhus(Monks), in the unconverted being repulsed (from the faith), and in many of the converted being estranged.'

6. And the Lord Buddha rebuked those Bhikkhus in many ways, spoke against unfrugality, ill-nature, immoderation, insatiableness, delighting in society, and indolence; spoke in many ways in praise of frugality, good-nature, of the moderate, contented, who have eradicated (sin), who have shaken off (sin), of the gracious, of the reverent, and of the energetic. And having delivered beforethe Bhikkhus a dhamma discourse in accordance to, and in conformity with these subjects, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus(Monks):

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus(Monks), (that young Bhikkhus choose) an upajjhaya (or preceptor).

'The upajjhaya, O Bhikkhus(Monks), ought to consider the saddhiviharika (i.e. pupil) as a son; the saddhiviharika ought to consider the upajjhaya as a father. Thus these two, united by mutual reverence, confidence, and communion of life, will progress, advance, and reach a high stage in this doctrine and discipline.

7. 'And let them choose, O Bhikkhus(Monks), an upajjhaya in this way: Let him (who is going to choose an upajjhaya) adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, salute the feet (of the intended upajjhaya), sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say: "Venerable Sir, be my upajjhaya; venerable Sir, be my upajjhaya; venerable Sir, be my upajjhaya." (If the other answer): "Well," or, "Certainly," or, "Good," or, "All right," or, "Carry on (your work) with friendliness (towards me)," or should he express this by gesture (lit. by his body). or by word, or by gesture and word, then the upajjhaya has been chosen. If he does not express this by gesture, nor by word, nor by gesture and word, the upajjhaya has not been chosen.

8. 'The saddhiviharika, O Bhikkhus(Monks), ought to observe a strict conduct towards his upajjhaya. And these are the rules for his conduct: Let him arise early, and having taken off his shoes and adjusted his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, let him give (to the upajjhaya) the teeth-cleanser and water to rinse his mouth with. Then let him prepare a seat (for the upajjhaya). If there is rice-milk, let him rinse the jug and offer the rice-milk (to the upajjhaya). When he has drunk it, let him give water (to the upajjhaya), take the jug, hold it down, rinse it properly without (damaging it by) rubbing, and put it away. When the upajjhaya has risen, let him take away the seat. If the place is dirty, let him sweep the place.

9. 'If the upajjhaya wishes to go into the village, let (the saddhiviharika) give (to the upajjhaya) his under garment, take (from him) his second under garment (i.e. his house-dress ?), give him his girdle, lay the two upper garments upon each other and give them (to the upajjhaya), rinse the alms-bowl, and give it him with some water in it. If the upajjhaya wishes (to go with) an attendant Bhikkhu, let him put on his under garment so as to conceal the three circles (viz. the navel and the two knees) and as to cover the body all around; then let him put on his girdle, lay the two upper garments upon each other and put them on, tie the knots, take his alms-bowl, after having it rinsed, and follow the upajjhaya as his attendant. Let him not go too far (from the upajjhaya) nor too near. Let him take (from the upajjhaya) what has been put into his alms-bowl.

10. 'When the upajjhaya speaks, let (the saddhiviharika) not interrupt him. If the upajjhaya is in danger of committing an offence by the words he says, let (the saddhiviharika) keep him back. When (the upajjhaya) turns back (from his alms-pilgrimage), let the saddhiviharika go back (to the Vihara(monastery)) before (the upajjhaya), prepares seat, get water for the washing of his feet, a foot-stool, and a towel; then let him go to meet the upajjhaya, take his bowl and his robe, give him his second under garment (his house-dress ?), and take his under garment. If the robe (of the upajjhaya) is wet with perspiration, let him dry it a while in a hot place, but let him not leave the robe in a hot place. Let him fold up the robe. When folding up the robe, let him fold it up so as to leave (every day) four inches (more than the day before) hanging over at the corners, in order that no fold may arise in the middle of it. Let him the girdle. If there is any food received in the alms-bowl, and the upajjhaya desires to eat it, let him give water (to the upajjhaya) and then offer him the food.

11. 'Let him offer to the upajjhaya (water) to drink. When the upajjhaya has finished his meal, let (the saddhiviharika) give him water, take his alms-bowl, hold it down, rinse it properly without (damaging it by) rubbing, pour the water out, and dry (the bowl) a while in some hot place, but let him not leave the bowl in the hot place. Let him put away the alms-bowl and the robe. When he puts away the alms-bowl, let him do so holding the alms-bowl with one hand, and first feeling with the other hand under the bed or under the chair (where he is going to put the bowl), and let him not put the bowl on the bare ground. When he hangs up the robe, let him take the robe with one hand and stroke with the other hand along the bambu peg or rope on which the robe is to be hung up, and hang up the robe so that the border is turned away from him (and turned to the wall), and the fold is turned towards him. When the upajjhaya has risen, let him take away the seat and put away the water for the washing of the feet, the foot-stool, and the towel. If the place is dirty, let him sweep the place.

12. 'If the upajjhaya wishes to bathe, let him prepare a bath. If he wants cold water, let him get cold water; if he wants hot water, let him get hot water. If the upajjhaya wishes to go to the gantaghara, let (the saddhiviharika) knead the powder, moisten the clay, take up the chair belonging to the gantaghara, follow the upajjhaya from behind, give him the chair, take his robe and put it aside, give him the powder and the clay. If he is able, let him also enter the gantaghara. When he is going to enter the gantaghara, let him besmear his face with clay, cover himself from before and behind, and thus enter the gantaghara.

13. 'Let him not sit down so as to encroach on senior Bhikkhus, nor let him dislodge junior Bhikkhus from their seats. Let him wait upon the upajjhaya in thegantaghara. When he is going to leave thegantaghara, let him take up the chair belonging to the gantaghara, cover himself from before and behind, and thus leave the gantaghara. Let him wait upon the upajjhaya also in the water. When he has bathed, let (the saddhiviharika) go out of the water first, let him dry his own body, put on his dress, then wipe off the water from his upajjhaya's body, give him his under garment and his upper garment, take the chair belonging to the gantaghara, go before the upajjhaya, prepare a seat for him, and get water for the washing of his feet, a foot-stool, and a towel. Let him offer to the upajjhaya (water) to drink.

14. 'If (the upajjhaya) likes being called upon to deliver a discourse, let him call upon (the upajjhaya to do so). If (the upajjhaya) likes questions being put to him, let him put questions (to the upajjhaya).

'If the Vihara(monastery), in which the upajjhaya dwells, is dirty, let him clean that Vihara, if he is able to do so. When cleaning the Vihara, let him first take away the alms-bowl and the robe (of the upajjhaya) and lay them aside. Let him take away the mat and the sheet and lay them aside. Let him take away the mattress and the pillow and lay them aside.

15. 'Let him turn down the bed, take it away properly without rubbing it (against the floor) and without knocking it against door or doorpost, and put it aside. Let him turn down the chair, take it away properly without rubbing it (against the floor) and without knocking it against door or doorpost, and put it aside. Let him take away the supporters of the bed and put them aside. Let him take away the spitting-box and put it aside. Let him take away the board to recline on and put it aside. Let him take away the carpet, after having noticed how it was spread out, and put it aside. If there are cobwebs in the Vihara(monastery), let him remove them as soon as he sees them. Let him wipe off the casements and the corners of the room. If a wall which is coated with red chalk, is dirty, let him moisten the mop, wring it out, and scour the wall. If the floor is coated black and is dirty, let him moisten the mop, wring it out, and scour the floor. If the floor is not blacked, let him sprinkle it with water and scrub it in order that the Vihara(monastery) may not become dusty. Let him heap up the sweepings and cast them aside.

16. 'Let him bask the carpet in the sunshine, clean it, dust it by beating, take it back, and spread it out as it was spread before. Let him put the supporters of the bed in the sunshine, wipe them take them back, and put them in their place. Let him put the bed in the sunshine, dean it, dust it by beating, turn it down, take it back properly without rubbing it (against the floor) and without knocking it against door and doorpost, and put it in its place. Let him put the chair in the sunshine, &c. Let him put mattress and pillow in the sunshine, clean them, dust them by beating, take them back, and lay them out as they were laid out before. Let him put the mat and sheet in the sunshine, &c. Let him put the spittoon in the sunshine, wipe it, take it back, and put it in its place. Let him put in the sunshine the board to recline on, &c.

17. 'Let him put away the alms-bowl and the robe. When he puts them away (&c., as in § 11, down to:), and hang up the robe so that the border is turned away from him and the fold is turned towards him.

18. 'If dusty winds blow from the East, let him shut the windows on the East. If dusty winds blow from the West, let him shut the windows on the West, &c. If it is cold weather, let him open the windows by day and shut them at night. If it is hot weather, let him shut the windows by day and open them at night.

19. 'If the cell is dirty, let him sweep the cell. If the store-room is dirty, let him sweep the store-room. If the refectory, &c. If the fire room, &c. If the privy is dirty, let him sweep the privy. If there is no drinkable water, let him provide drinkable water. If there is no food, let him provide food. If there is no water in the waterpot for rinsing the mouth with, let him pour water into the pot.

20. 'If discontent has arisen within the upajjhaya's heare, let the saddhiviharika appease him, or cause him to be appeased (by another), by compose him by dhamma conversation. If indecision has arisen in the upajjhaya's mind, let the saddhiviharika dispel it, or cause it to be dispelled, or compose him by dhamma conversation. If the upajjhaya takes to a false doctrine, let the saddhiviharika discuss it, or cause another to discuss it, or compose (the upajjhaya) by dhamma conversation.

21. 'If the upajjhaya is guilty of a grave offence, and ought to be sentenced to parivasa discipline, let the saddhiviharika take care that the Sangha sentence the upajjhaya to parivasa discipline. If the upajjhaya ought to be sentenced to recommence his penal discipline, let the saddhiviharika take care that the Sangha may order the upajjhaya to recommence his penal discipline. If the manatta discipline ought to be imposed on the upajjhaya, let the saddhiviharika take care that the Sangha impose the manatta discipline on the upajjhaya. If the upajjhaya is to be rehabilitated (when his penal discipline has been duly undergone), let the saddhiviharika take care that the Sangha rehabilitate the upajjhaya.

22. 'If the Sangha wishes to proceed against the upajjhaya by the Tajjaniyakamma, or the nissaya, or the Pabbajaniyakamma, or the patisaraniyakamma, or the ukkhepaniyakamma, let the saddhiviharika do what he can in order that the Sangha may not proceed against the upajjhaya or may mitigate the proceeding. Or if thc Sangha has instituted a proceeding against him, the Tajjaniyakamma, &c., or the Ukkhepaniyakamma, let the saddhiviharika do what he can in order that the upajjhaya may behave himself properly, live modestly, and aspire to get clear of his penance, and that the Sangha may revoke its sentence.

23. 'If the robe of the upajjhaya must be washed, let the saddhiviharika wash it or take care that the upajjhaya's robe is washed. If a robe must be made for the upajjhaya, let the saddhiviharika make it or take care that the upajjhaya's robe is made. If dye must be boiled for the upajjhaya, &c. If the robe of the upajjhaya must be dyed, &c. When he dyes the robe, let him dye it properly and turn it whenever required, and let him not go away before the dye has ceased to drop.

24. 'Let him not give his alms-bowl to any one without the permission of his upajjhaya. Let him not accept an alms-bowl from any one else without the permission of his upajjhaya. Let him not give his robe to any one else, &c. Let him not accept a robe from any one else; let him not give articles (required for a Bhikkhu) to any one else; let him not receive (such) articles from anyone else; let him not shave the hair of any one else; let him not have his hair shaven by any one else; let him not wait upon any one else; let him not have done service by any one else; let him not execute commissions for any one else; let him not have commissions executed by anyone else; let him not go with anyone else as his attendant; let him not take any one else with him as his attendant; let him not carry any one's food received by him in alms (to the Vihara(monastery)); let him not have the food received by himself in alms carried by any one (to the Vihara) without the permission of his upajjhaya. Let him not enter the village, or go to a cemetery, or go abroad on journeys without the permission of his upajjhaya. If his upajjhaya is sick, let him nurse him as long as his life lasts, and wait until he has recovered.'

End of the duties towards an upajjhaya.

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