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Tipitaka >> Vinaya Pitaka >> Mahavagga >> Fourth Khandaka >> 4.16

Adapted from the Translation by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann Oldenberg


THE MAHAVAGGA

FOURTH KHANDHAKA(PAVARANA CEREMONY AT THE END OF THE RAINY SEASON,VASSA)

Chapter-16 : How to Treat The Guilty.

1. At that time the Chabbaggiya Bhikkhus held Pavarana being guilty of an offence.

They told this thing to the Lord Buddha.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus(Monks), hold Pavarana who is guilty of an offence. He who does, commits a dukkata offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus(Monks), that you ask a Bhikkhu who holds Pavarana being guilty of an offence, for his leave and reprove him for that offence.'

2. At that time the Chabbaggiya Bhikkhus, when asked for leave, were not willing to give leave (to Bhikkhus who were going to reprove them for an offence).

They told this thing to the Lord Buddha.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus(Monks), that you inhibit the Pavarana of a Bhikkhu who does not give leave. And you ought to inhibit it, O Bhikkhus(Monks), in this way: Let (a Bhikkhu) say on the day of Pavarana, on the fourteenth or on the fifteenth day (of the half month), in presence of that person, before the assembled Sangha: "Let the Sangha, reverend Sirs, hear me. Such and such a person is guilty of an offence; I inhibit his Pavarana; Pavarana must not be held in his presence." Thus his Pavarana is inhibited.'

3. At that time the Khabbagiya Bhikkhus, who thought: 'Otherwise good Bhikkhus might inhibit our Pavarana,' themselves inhibited beforehand, without object and reason, the Pavarana of pure Bhikkhus who had committed no offence, and they also inhibited the Pavarana of Bhikkhus who had already performed their Pavarana.

They told this thing to the Lord Buddha.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus(Monks), inhibit, without object and reason, the Pavarana of pure Bhikkhus who have committed no offence. He who does, commits a dukkata offence. And further, O Bhikkhus(Monks), let no one inhibit the Pavarana of Bhikkhus who have already performed their Pavarana. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.

4. 'And thus, O Bhikkhus(Monks), (you may discern whether) the Pavarana is (duly) inhibited or not inhibited.

'In what cases is the Pavarana, O Bhikkhus(Monks), not inhibited? When Pavarana, O Bhikkhus(Monks), is pronounced, dedared, and finished with the threefold formula, and if (a Bhikkhu then) inhibits the Pavarana (of another Bhikkhu), the Pavarana is not inhibited. When Pavarana, O Bhikkhus(Monks), is pronounced, declared, and finished with the twofold formula, with the onefold formula, by common declaration of all Bhikkhus who have kept vassa(rains) together, and if (a Bhikkhu then) inhibits, (&c., as before). In these cases, O Bhikkhus(Monks), the Pavarana is not inhibited.

5. 'And in what cases, O Bhikkhus(Monks), is the Pavarana inhibited? When Pavarana, O Bhikkhus(Monks), is pronounced, declared, but not finished with the threefold formula, and if (a Bhikkhu then) inhibits the Pavarana (of another Bhikkhu), the Pavarana is inhibited, (&c.). In these cases, O Bhikkhus(Monks), the Pavarana is inhibited.

6. 'In case, O Bhikkhus(Monks), one Bhikkhu, on the day of Pavarana, inhibits the Pavarana of another Bhikkhu: then if the other Bhikkhus know with regard to that (inhibiting) Bhikkhu: "This venerable brother is not of a pure conduct in his deeds, nor in his words, nor as regards his means of livelihood, he is ignorant, unlearned, unable to give explanation when he is questioned," (let them say to him): "No, friend, let not quarrel arise, nor strife, nor discord, nor dispute," and having thus put him to silence, let the Sangha hold Pavarana.

7-9. 'In case; O Bhikkhus(Monks), &c.

10. 'In case, O Bhikkhus(Monks), one Bhikkhu on the day of Pavarana inhibits the Pavarana of another Bhikkhu: then if the other Bhikkhus know with regard to that (inhibiting) Bhikkhu: "This venerable brother is of a pure conduct in his deeds and in his words and with regard to his means of livelihood, he is clever, learned, and able to give explanation when he is questioned," let them say to him: "If you inhibit, friend, the Pavarana of this Bhikkhu, on what account do you inhibit it, on account of a moral transgression, or on account of a transgression against the rules of conduct or on account of heresy?"

11. ' If he replies: "I inhibit it on account of a moral transgression, I inhibit it on account of a transgression against the rules of conduct. I inhibit it on account of heresy," let them say to him: "Well, do you know, Sir, what a moral transgression is, what a transgression against the rules of conduct is, what heresy is?" If he replies. "I know, friends, what a moral transgression is, &c.," let them say to him: "And what is, friend, a moral transgression, &c.?"

12. 'If he replies: "The four parajika offences and the thirteen sanghadisesa offences are the moral transgressions; thulakaya(big/grave) offences, Pachittiya offences, patidesaniya offences, dukkata offences, and wicked language are the transgressions against the rules of conduct; false doctrine and . . . . doctrine are heresy," let them say to him: "If you inhibit, friend, the Pavarana of this Bhikkhu, do you inhibit it on account of what you have seen, or of what you have heard, or of what you suspect?"

13. 'If he replies: "I inhibit it on account of what I have seen, or on account of what I have heard, or on account of what I suspect," let them say to him: "If you inhibit, friend, the Pavarana of this Bhikkhu on account of what you have seen, what have you seen? What is it that you have seen? When have you seen it? Where have you seen it? Have you seen him committing a parajika offence? Have you seen him committing a sanghadisesa offence? Have you seen him committing a thullakka ya offence, a Pachittiya offence, a patidesaniya offence, a dukkata offence, or making himself guilty of wicked language? And where were you? And where was this Bhikkhu? And what did you do? And what did this Bhikkhu do?"

14. 'If he then replies: "I do not inhibit, friends, the Pavarana of this Bhikkhu on account of what I have seen, but I inhibit it on account of what I have heard," let them say to him: "If you inhibit, friend, the Pavarana of this Bhikkhu on account of what you have heard, what have you heard? What is it that you have heard? When have you heard it? Where have you heard it? Have you heard that he has committed a parajika offence, (&c., down to) or that he has made himself guilty of wicked language? Have you heard it from a Bhikkhu(Monk)? Have you heard it from a Bhikkhuni(Nun)? Have you heard it from a sikkhamana, from a samanera, from a samaneri, from an upasaka, from an upasika, from kings, from royal officers, from Titthiyas, from Titthiya disciples?"

15. 'If he then replies: "I do not inhibit, friends, the Pavarana of this Bhikkhu on account of what I have heard, but I inhibit it on account of what I suspect," let them say to him: "If you inhibit, friend, the Pavarana of this Bhikkhu on account of what you suspect, what do you suspect? What is it that you suspect? When do you suspect it? Where do you suspect it? Do you suspect that he has committed a parajika offence, (&c., down to) wicked language? Does your suspicion come from what you have heard from a Bhikkhu, (&c., down to) from Titthiya disciples?"

16. 'If he then replies: "I do not inhibit. friends, the Pavarana of this Bhikkhu on account of what I suspect; I do not know the reason why I inhibit the Pavarana of this Bhikkhu," and if that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus(Monks), who reproves (the other one), being questioned by intelligent fellow Bhikkhus, is not able to convince tbeir minds, you are right in saying that in such case the Bhikkhu who has been reproved is blameless. But if that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus(Monks), who reproves (the other one), being questioned by intelligent fellow Bhikkhus, is able to convince their minds, you are right in saying that in such case the Bhikkhu who has been reproved is blamable.

17. 'If that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus(Monks), who reproves (another one), admits that be has charged him unfoundedly with a parajika offence, let the Sangha enter upon the sanghadisesa proceedings (against the accuser) and then hold Pavarana.

'If that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus(Monks), who reproves (another one), admits that he has charged him unfoundedly with a sanghadisesa offence, let the Sangha treat (the accuser) according to the law and then hold Pavarana.

'If that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus(Monks), who reproves (another one), admits that he has charged him unfoundedly with a thulakaya(big/grave) offence, or with a Pachittiya offence, or with a patidesaniya offence, or with a dukkata offence, or with having used wicked language, let the Sangha treat (the accuser) according to the law and then hold Pavarana.

18. 'If that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus(Monks), who has been reproved, admits that be has committed a parajika offence, let the Sangha expel him and then bold Pavarana.

'If that Bhikkhu, &c., admits that be has committed a sanghadisesa offence, let the Sangha enter upon the sanghadisesa proceedings (against him) and then hold Pavarana.

'If that Bhikkhu, &c., admits that he has committed a thulakaya(big/grave) offence, or a Pachittiya offence, . . . . (&c., down to) . . . . wicked language, let the Sangha treat him according to the law and then hold Pavarana.

19. 'In case, O Bhikkhus(Monks), a Bhikkhu on the day of Pavarana is guilty of a thulakaya(big/grave) offence. Some Bhikkhus believe that it is a thullakkaya offence, other Bhikkhus believe that it is a sanghadisesa offence. In that case, O Bhikkhus(Monks), let those Bhikkhus who take it for a thulakaya(big/grave) offence, take that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus(Monks), aside, treat him according to the law, go back to the Sangha, and say: "The offence, friends, which this Bhikkhu has committed, he has atoned for according to the law. If the Sangha is ready, let the Sangha hold Pavarana.

20. 'In case, O Bhikkhus(Monks), a Bhikkhu on the day of Pavarana is guilty of a thulakaya(big/grave) offence. Some Bhikkhus believe that it is a thulakaya(big/grave) offence, other Bhikkhus believe that it is a Pachittiya offence. Some Bhikkhus believe that it is a thullakkaya offence, other Bhikkhus believe that it is a patidesaniya offence; a thulakaya(big/grave) offence; a dukkata offence; a thullakkaya offence, an offence by wicked language. In that case (&c., as in § 19, down to the end).

21, 22. 'In case, O Bhikkhus(Monks), a Bhikkhu on the day of Pavarana is guilty of a Pachittiya offence, of a patidesaniya offence, or a dukkata offence, of an offence by wicked language. Some Bhikkhus believe that it is an offence by wicked language, other Bhikkhus believe that it is a sanghadisesa offence, &c. Some Bhikkhus believe that it is an offence by wicked language, other Bhikkhus believe that it is a dukkata offence. In that case, O Bhikkhus(Monks), let those Bhikkhus who take it for an offence by wicked language, take that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus(Monks), aside (&c., see § 19).

23. 'If, O Bhikkhus(Monks), a Bhikkhu speaks thus before the assembly on the day of Pavarana: "Let the Sangha, reverend Sirs, hear me. Here this deed is known (to me), but not the (guilty) person. If the Sangha is ready, let the Sangha hold Pavarana excluding this deed," (the Bhikkhus) ought to reply: "The Lord Buddha, friend, has prescribed that they who hold Pavarana, ought to be pure. If a deed is known, but not the (guilty) person, report it (to us) now."

24. 'If, O Bhikkhus(Monks), a Bhikkhu speaks thus before the assembly on the day of Pavarana: "Let the Sangha, reverend Sirs, hear me. Here a person is known (to me as guilty), but not his deed. If the Sangha is ready, let the Sangha hold Pavarana excluding this person," (the Bhikkhus) ought to reply: "The Lord Buddha, friend, has prescribed that they who hold Pavarana, ought to be complete. If a person is known to you (as guilty), but not his deed, report it (to us) now."

25. 'If, O Bhikkhus(Monks), a Bhikkhu speaks thus before the assembly on the day of Pavarana: "Let the Sangha, reverend Sirs, hear me. Here a deed is known (to me) as well as the (guilty) person. If the Sangha is ready, let the Sangha hold Pavarana excluding this deed and this person," (the Bhikkhus) ought to reply: "The Lord Buddha, friend, has prescribed that they who hold Pavarana, ought to be pure as well as complete. If the deed and the (guilty) person are known to you, report it (to us) now."

26. 'If, O Bhikkhus(Monks), a deed becomes known before the Pavarana, and the (guilty) person afterwards (i.e. after the Pavarana), it is right to bring it forward (then).

'If, O Bhikkhus(Monks), the (guilty) person becomes known before the Pavarana, and his deed afterwards, it is right to bring it forward (then).

'If, O Bhikkhus(Monks), the deed as well as the (guilty) person becomes known before the Pavarana, and if (a Bhikkhu) raises up that matter again after the Pavarana, he makes himsef guilty of a Pachittiya offence for raising up (a matter that has been settled).'

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